The dynamic interaction between a bridge and a moving train has been widely studied. However, there is a significant gap in our understanding of how the presence of isolation bearings influences the dynamic response, especially when an earthquake occurs. Here, we formulate a coupled model of a train-bridge-bearing system to examine the bearings’ dynamic effects on the system responses. In the analysis, the train is modeled as a moving oscillator, the bridge is a one span simply supported beam and one isolation bearing is installed under each support of the bridge. A mathematical model using fractional derivatives is used to capture the viscoelastic properties of the bearings. The vertical response is the focus of this investigation. Dynamic substructuring is used in modeling to efficiently capture the coupled dynamics of the entire system. Illustrative numerical simulations are carried out to examine the effects of the bearings. The results demonstrate that although the presence of bearings typically decreases the bridge seismic responses, there is a potential to increase the bridge response induced by the moving train.