The dynamic response of fractionally damped viscoelastic plates subjected to a moving point load is investigated. In order to capture the viscoelastic dynamic behavior more accurately, the material is modeled using the fractionally damped Kelvin–Voigt model (rather than the integer-type viscoelastic model). The Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative of order 0 < α ≤ 1 is applied. Galerkin's method and Newton–Raphson technique are used to evaluate the natural frequencies and corresponding damping coefficients. The structure is subject to a moving point load, traveling at different speeds. The modal summation technique is applied to generate the dynamic response of the plate. The influence of the order of the fractional derivative on the free and transient vibrations is studied for different velocities of the moving load. The results are compared with those using the classical integer-type Kelvin–Voigt viscoelastic model. The results show that an increase in the order of the fractional derivative causes a significant decrease in the maximum dynamic amplification factor, especially in the “dynamic zone” of the normalized sweep time. The dynamic behavior of the plate is verified with ansys.