Abstract

Blade tip timing (BTT) includes a number of uncertainties that discourage its use. One of the main ones is the shift in the equilibrium position of the blade tip due to steady (non-oscillatory) bending and/or twisting of the blade, and axial movement of the bladed disk (blisk)-shaft system. This results in a shift in the effective measurement position of the probe relative to the blade chord, resulting in errors in the tip vibration measurement which can translate to a huge error in the corresponding stress estimate, which relies on calibration against finite element (FE) models. Previous experimentally validated research by the authors introduced a method for quantifying steady movement of a single type (axial, lean, or untwist), using BTT data from not more than two probes. In this paper, a development of the previous method is presented that provides a solution for the case of simultaneous types of blade steady movements. Additional probes are used for determining the direction, but these can be placed at any angular positions. The developed method is validated using a BTT simulator of a blisk, and accurate results obtained. The simultaneous axial and lean movements can be accurately determined when the untwist is negligible, and an uncertainty level can be specified when the untwist is not negligible. The untwist itself can be calculated accurately in all cases of simultaneous movements. Guidelines for the use of the method in different scenarios are provided.

References

References
1.
Russhard
,
P.
,
2015
,
The Rise and Fall of the Rotor Blade Strain Gauge
,
J. K.
Sinha
, ed.,
Springer International Publishing
,
Cham
, pp.
27
37
.
2.
Prochazka
,
P.
, and
Vanek
,
F.
,
2013
, “
New Methods of Non-Contact Sensing of Blade Vibrations and Deflections in Turbomachinery
,”
2013 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)
,
Minneapolis, MN
,
May 6–9
, pp.
339
344
.
3.
García
,
I.
,
Beloki
,
J.
,
Zubia
,
J.
,
Aldabaldetreku
,
G.
,
Illarramendi
,
M.
, and
Jiménez
,
F.
,
2013
, “
An Optical Fiber Bundle Sensor for Tip Clearance and Tip Timing Measurements in a Turbine Rig
,”
Sensors
,
13
(
6
), pp.
7385
7398
. 10.3390/s130607385
4.
Watkins
,
W.
,
Robinson
,
W.
, and
Chi
,
R.
,
1985
, “
Noncontact Engine Blade Vibration Measurements and Analysis
,”
21st Joint Propulsion Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
,
Monterey, CA
,
July 8–10
.
5.
Kubín
,
Z.
,
Mísek
,
T.
,
Hlous
,
J.
,
Dadaková
,
T.
,
Kellner
,
J.
, and
Bachorec
,
T.
,
2018
, “
Calibration of Blade Tip-Timing Sensor for Shrouded 40″ Last Stage Blade
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Pr.
,
108
, pp.
88
98
. 10.1016/j.ymssp.2018.02.001
6.
Zielinski
,
M.
, and
Ziller
,
G.
,
2000
, “
Noncontact Vibration Measurements on Compressor Rotor Blades
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
11
(
7
), p.
847
. 10.1088/0957-0233/11/7/301
7.
Chana
,
K. S.
,
Sridhar
,
V.
, and
Singh
,
D.
,
2016
, “
The Use of Eddy Current Sensors for the Measurement of Rotor Blade Tip Timing: Development of a New Method Based on Integration
,”
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2016: Volume 6: Ceramics; Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation; Education; Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy
,
Seoul, South Korea
,
June 13–17
, V006T05A019, pp.
179
189
.
8.
Zablotskii
,
I.
,
Korostelev
,
Y.
, and
Sviblov
,
L.
,
1974
, “
Contactless Measuring of Vibrations in the Rotor Blades of Turbines
,” Foreign Technology Division, Air Force Systems Command, U.S. Air Force, FTD-HT-23-673-74.
9.
Nieberding
,
W.
, and
Pollack
,
J.
,
1977
, “
Optical Detection of Blade Flutter
,”
NASA Lewis Research Center
, NASA TM X-73573.
10.
Kurkov
,
A.
, and
Dicus
,
J.
,
1978
, “
Synthesis of Blade Flutter Vibratory Patterns Using Stationary Transducers
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 1978 International Gas Turbine Conference and Products Show. Volume 1B: General
,
London, England
,
Apr. 9–13
.
11.
Heath
,
S.
,
1996
, “
A Study of Tip-Timing Techniques for the Determination of Bladed Disk Vibration Characteristics
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
The University of London
,
London, UK
.
12.
Heath
,
S.
, and
Imregun
,
M.
,
1996
, “
An Improved Single-Parameter Tip-Timing Method For Turbomachinery Blade Vibration Measurement Using Optical Laser Probes
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
38
(
10
), pp.
1047
1058
. 10.1016/0020-7403(95)00116-6
13.
Heath
,
S.
,
2000
, “
A New Technique For Identifying Synchronous Resonances Using Tip-Timing
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power
,
122
(
2
), pp.
219
225
. 10.1115/1.483198
14.
Carrington
,
I.
,
Wright
,
J.
,
Cooper
,
J.
, and
Dimitriadis
,
G.
,
2001
, “
A Comparison of Blade Tip Timing Data Analysis Methods,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
,”
Part G: J. Aerospace Eng.
,
215
(
5
), pp.
301
312
. 10.1243/0954410011533293
15.
Gallego-Garrido
,
J.
,
Dimitriadis
,
G.
, and
Wright
,
J.
,
2007
, “
A Class of Methods for the Analysis of Blade Tip Timing Data From Bladed Assemblies Undergoing Simultaneous Resonances—Part I: Theoretical Development
,”
Int. J. Rotating Mach.
, pp.
1
11
.
16.
Gallego-Garrido
,
J.
,
Dimitriadis
,
G.
,
Carrington
,
I.
, and
Wright
,
J.
,
2007
, “
A Class of Methods for the Analysis of Blade Tip Timing Data From Bladed Assemblies Undergoing Simultaneous Resonances—Part II: Experimental Validation
,”
Int. J. Rotating Mach.
, pp.
1
10
.
17.
Russhard
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Development of a Blade Tip Timing Based Engine Health Monitoring System
,” Eng.D. dissertation,
University of Manchester
,
Manchester, UK
.
18.
Rigosi
,
G.
,
Battiato
,
G.
, and
Berruti
,
T.
,
2017
, “
Synchronous Vibration Parameters Identification by Tip Timing Measurements
,”
Mech. Res. Commun.
,
79
, pp.
7
14
. 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2016.10.006
19.
Lin
,
J.
,
Hu
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
Z. S.
,
Yang
,
Y. M.
, and
Xu
,
H. L.
,
2016
, “
Sparse Reconstruction of Blade Tip-Timing Signals for Multi-Mode Blade Vibration Monitoring
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Pr.
,
81
, pp.
250
258
. 10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.03.020
20.
Joung
,
K.
,
Kang
,
S.
,
Paeng
,
K.
,
Park
,
N.
,
Choi
,
H.
,
You
,
Y.
, and
Flotow
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Analysis of Vibration of The Turbine Blades Using Non-Intrusive Stress Measurement System
,”
ASME 2006 Power Conference
,
Atlanta, GA
,
May 2–4
, pp.
1
7
.
21.
Lawson
,
C.
, and
Ivey
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Compressor Blade Tip Timing Using Capacitance Tip Clearance Probes
,”
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003
,
Atlanta, GA
,
June 16–19
, pp.
1
8
.
22.
Russhard
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Blade Tip Timing (BTT) Uncertainties
,”
AIP Conference Proceedings
,
Ancona, Italy
,
June 29–July 1
, Vol.
1740
.
23.
Mohamed
,
M.
,
Bonello
,
P.
, and
Russhard
,
P.
,
2018
, “
The Determination of Steady-State Movements Using Blade Tip Timing Data
,”
ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Volume 7C: Structures and Dynamics
,
Oslo, Norway
,
June 11–15
, p.
V07CT35A010
.
24.
Twerdochlib
,
M.
,
Osborne
,
R.
, and
Rozelle
,
P.
,
1990
, “
Methods for Determining the Untwist of Turbine Blades
,” U.S. Patent No. US07385753.
25.
Clifford Hatcher
,
J.
, and
Brindisi
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Method of Determining the Location of Tip Timing Sensors during Operation
,” U.S. Patent No. US20150199805 A1.
26.
Kominsky
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Rotating Stall Detection Using Optical Measurement of Blade Untwist
,” U.S. Patent No. US8,854,626 B2, pp.
12
15
.
27.
Jousselin
,
O.
,
2013
, “
Development of Blade Tip Timing Techniques in Turbo Machinery
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
The University of Manchester
,
Manchester, UK
.
28.
Mohamed
,
M.
,
Bonello
,
P.
, and
Russhard
,
P.
,
2019
, “
A Novel Method for the Determination of the Change in Blade Tip Timing Probe Sensing Position due to Steady Movements
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Pr.
,
126
, pp.
686
710
. 10.1016/j.ymssp.2019.02.016
29.
Diamond
,
D. H.
, and
Stephan Heyns
,
P.
,
2018
, “
A Novel Method for the Design of Proximity Sensor Configuration for Rotor Blade Tip Timing
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
140
(
6
), pp.
1
8
. 10.1115/1.4039931
30.
Carrington
,
I. B.
,
2002
, “
Development of Blade Tip Timing Data Analysis Techniques
,” Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Manchester
,
Manchester, UK
.
You do not currently have access to this content.