Abstract

A novel fluid injection scheme is analyzed for its ability to suppress the far-field jet noise using multiple radial microjets placed downstream from the nozzle exhaust. Contrary to other previous research studies, which injected fluid either inside the nozzle or just at the nozzle exhaust, this injection scheme uses a coaxial injector tube to inject multiple equally spaced microjets perpendicular to the jet axis at an axial location downstream from the nozzle exhaust. Microjet injection closer to the jet axis leads to the formation of a counter rotating vortex pair (CVP) close to the injection location which subsequently breaks down into streamwise vortices as the microjet bends and follows the flow direction. Microjet injection pressure and angle of injection play a crucial role in determining the jet trajectory, penetration, and the strength of the CVP formed. The effect of these parameters on the far-field acoustic radiation is evaluated in this study. Detailed large eddy simulations are performed for a nozzle–injector setup operating at Mach 0.9 jet with Reynolds number ≈106 to help understand the aerodynamic and acoustic features of the interaction of this fluid injection scheme with the main jet.

References

References
1.
Chen
,
T.-J.
,
Chiang
,
H.-C.
, and
Chen
,
S.-S.
,
1992
, “
Effects of Aircraft Noise on Hearing and Auditory Pathway Function of Airport Employees.
,”
J. Occup. Med.
,
34
(
6
), pp.
613
619
.
2.
Upham
,
P.
,
Thomas
,
C.
,
Gillingwater
,
D.
, and
Raper
,
D.
,
2003
, “
Environmental Capacity and Airport Operations: Current Issues and Future Prospects
,”
J. Air Trans. Manage.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
145
151
. 10.1016/S0969-6997(02)00078-9
3.
Karabasov
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Understanding Jet Noise
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.
,
368
(
1924
), pp.
3593
3608
. 10.1098/rsta.2010.0086
4.
Henderson
,
B.
,
2010
, “
Fifty Years of Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
9
(
1–2
), pp.
91
122
. 10.1260/1475-472X.9.1-2.91
5.
Krothapalli
,
A.
,
Venkatakrishnan
,
L.
,
Lourenco
,
L.
, and
Elavarasan
,
R.
,
2000
, “
Supersonic Jet Noise Suppression by Water Injection
,”
6th Aeroacoustics Conference and Exhibit
,
Lahaina, HI
,
June 12–14
, p.
2025
.
6.
Norum
,
T. D.
,
2004
, “
Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection
,”
AIAA Paper
2004-2976.
7.
Greska
,
B.
, and
Krothapalli
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Jet Noise Reduction Using Aqueous Microjet Injection
,”
AIAA Paper
2004-2971.
8.
Barbarino
,
M.
,
Ilsami
,
M.
,
Tuccillo
,
R.
, and
Federico
,
L.
,
2017
, “
Combined CFD-Stochastic Analysis of an Active Fluidic Injection System for Jet Noise Reduction
,”
Appl. Sci.
,
7
(
6
), p.
623
. 10.3390/app7060623
9.
Greska
,
B.
,
Krothapalli
,
A.
,
Seiner
,
J.
,
Jansen
,
B.
, and
Ukeiley
,
L.
,
2005
, “
The Effects of Microjet Injection on an f404 Jet Engine
,”
11th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference
,
Monterey, CA
,
May 23–25
, p.
3047
.
10.
Washington
,
D.
, and
Krothapalli
,
A.
,
1998
, “
The Role of Water Injection on the Mixing Noise Supersonic Jet
,”
4th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference
,
Toulouse, France
,
June 2–4
, p.
2205
.
11.
Caeti
,
R. B.
, and
Kalkhoran
,
I. M.
,
2013
, “
Jet Noise Reduction Via Fluidic Injection
,”
AIAA J.
,
52
(
1
), pp.
26
32
. 10.2514/1.J051872
12.
Rajput
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
S.
, and
Kalkhoran
,
I.
,
2017
, “
Noise Reduction for an Unheated Mach 0.9 Jet by Fluidic Injection
,”
23rd AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference
,
Denver, CO
,
June 5–9
, p.
3857
.
13.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Directional Noise Reduction Via Asymmetric Downstream Fluidic Injection
,”
ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
,
Tampa, FL
,
Nov. 5–8
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, pp.
V001T03A026
V001T03A026
.
14.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Jet Noise Reduction by Downstream Fluidic Injection: Effect of Injection Pressure Ratio and Number of Injection Ports
,”
2018 AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
,
Kissimmee, FL
,
Jan. 8–12
, p.
0258
.
15.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Directionally Targeted Jet Noise Suppression: Benefits of Asymmetric Downstream Fluidic Injection
,”
2018 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference
,
Atlanta, GA
,
June 25–29
, p.
3609
.
16.
Bridges
,
J.
, and
Brown
,
C. A.
,
2005
, “
Validation of the Small Hot Jet Acoustic Rig for Aeroacoustic Research
,”
AIAA Paper 2005-2846.
17.
Weller
,
H. G.
,
Tabor
,
G.
,
Jasak
,
H.
, and
Fureby
,
C.
,
1998
, “
A Tensorial Approach to Computational Continuum Mechanics Using Object-Oriented Techniques
,”
Comput. Phys.
,
12
(
6
), pp.
620
631
. 10.1063/1.168744
18.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
S.
,
2019
, “
Use of Downstream Fluid Injection to Reduce Subsonic Jet Noise
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
18
(
4–5
), pp.
554
574
. 10.1177/1475472X19859890
19.
Bogey
,
C.
, and
Bailly
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Influence of Nozzle-Exit Boundary-Layer Conditions on the Flow and Acoustic Fields of Initially Laminar Jets
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
663
, pp.
507
538
. 10.1017/S0022112010003605
20.
Shur
,
M. L.
,
Spalart
,
P. R.
, and
Strelets
,
M. K.
,
2005
, “
Noise Prediction for Increasingly Complex Jets. Part I: Methods and Tests
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
4
(
3
), pp.
213
245
. 10.1260/1475472054771376
21.
Mendez
,
S.
,
Shoeybi
,
M.
,
Sharma
,
A.
,
Ham
,
F.
,
Lele
,
S.
, and
Moin
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Large-Eddy Simulations of Perfectly Expanded Supersonic Jets Using an Unstructured Solver
,”
AIAA J.
,
50
(
5
), pp.
1103
1118
. 10.2514/1.J051211
22.
Mendez
,
S.
,
Shoeybi
,
M.
,
Sharma
,
A.
,
Lele
,
S.
, and
Moin
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Post-Processing of Large-Eddy Simulations for Jet Noise Predictions
,”
Center for Turbulence Research Annual Research Briefs.
23.
Zaman
,
K.
,
1998
, “
Asymptotic Spreading Rate of Initially Compressible Jets—Experiment and Analysis
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
10
(
10
), pp.
2652
2660
. 10.1063/1.869778
24.
Zaman
,
K.
,
1999
, “
Spreading Characteristics of Compressible Jets From Nozzles of Various Geometries
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
383
, pp.
197
228
. 10.1017/S0022112099003833
25.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kalkhoran
,
I.
,
2015
, “
Continuous Radial Jet in Annular Cross-Flow
,”
33rd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference
,
Dallas, TX
,
June 22–26
.
26.
Mahesh
,
K.
,
2013
, “
The Interaction of Jets With Crossflow
,”
Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
45
, pp.
379
407
. 10.1146/annurev-fluid-120710-101115
27.
Papamoschou
,
D.
, and
Hubbard
,
D.
,
1993
, “
Visual Observations of Supersonic Transverse Jets
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
14
(
6
), pp.
468
476
. 10.1007/BF00190201
28.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kalkhoran
,
I. M.
,
2016
, “
Computational Analysis and Optimization of Blockerless Engine Thrust Reverser Concept
,”
54th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting
,
San Diego, CA
,
Jan. 4–8
, p.
0293
.
29.
Rajput
,
P.
, and
Kalkhoran
,
I.
,
2016
, “
Optimization of Blockerless Engine Thrust Reverser
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
33
(
1
), pp.
1
14
.
You do not currently have access to this content.