The smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) is an output-only modal analysis method, which has simple structure and gives good results for undamped or lightly damped vibration systems. In the present study, the SOD method is extended to incorporate various measurements that contain the displacement, the velocity, the acceleration, and even the jerk (derivation of the acceleration). Several generalized eigenvalue problems (EVPs) are put forward considering different measurement combinations, and it is proved that all these EVPs can reduce to the eigenvalue problems of the undamped vibration system. These different methods are called extended smooth orthogonal decomposition (ESOD) methods in this paper. For the damped vibration system, the frequencies obtained by different ESOD methods are different from each other. Thus, a cost function is defined and a search algorithm is proposed to find the optimal frequency and damping ratio that can explain these differences. Although the search algorithm is derived for the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) vibration systems, it is effective for the multi-degrees-of-freedom (MDOF) vibration system after assuming that the smooth orthogonal coordinates (SOCs) computed by the ESOD methods are approximate to the modal coordinate responses. In order to verify the ESOD methods and the search algorithm, simulations are carried out and the results indicate that all ESOD methods reach correct results for undamped vibration systems and the search algorithm can give accurate frequency and damping ratio for damped systems. In addition, the effects of measurement noises are considered and the results show that the proposed method has anti-noise property to some extent.

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