An analysis is presented of the performance benefits that can be achieved by introducing acoustic coupling between the diaphragms in an array of miniature microphones. The introduction of this coupling is analogous to the principles employed in the ears of small animals that are able to localize sound sources. Measured results are shown, which indicate a dramatic improvement in acoustic sensitivity, and noise performance can be achieved by packaging a pair of small microphones so that their diaphragms share a common back volume of air. This is also shown to reduce the adverse effects on directional response of mismatches in the mechanical properties of the microphones.

References

References
1.
Fay
,
R. R.
, and
Feng
,
A. S.
,
1987
, “
Mechanisms for Directional Hearing Among Nonmammalian Vertebrates
,”
Directional Hearing
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
, pp.
179
213
.
2.
Miles
,
R.
,
Robert
,
D.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
1995
, “
Mechanically Coupled Ears for Directional Hearing in the Parasitoid Fly Ormia ochracea
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
98
(
6
), pp.
3059
3070
.
3.
Robert
,
D.
,
Miles
,
R.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
1996
, “
Directional Hearing by Mechanical Coupling in the Parasitoid Fly Ormia ochracea
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. A
,
179
(
1
), pp.
29
44
.
4.
Miles
,
R.
,
Tieu
,
T.
,
Robert
,
D.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
1997
, “
A Mechanical Analysis of the Novel Ear of the Parasitoid Fly Ormia ochracea
,”
Diversity in Auditory Mechanics
,
World Scientific
,
Singapore
, pp.
18
24
.http://ws2.binghamton.edu/me/MSL/PDF_Paper/1997%20Audmech_Miles%20Hoy_paper_pdf%201.pdf
5.
Robert
,
D.
,
Miles
,
R.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
1998
, “
Tympanal Mechanics in the Parasitoid Fly Ormia ochracea: Intertympanal Coupling During Mechanical Vibration
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. A
,
183
(
4
), pp.
443
452
.
6.
Robert
,
D.
,
Miles
,
R.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
1999
, “
Tympanal Hearing in the Sarcophagid Parasitoid Fly Emblemasoma sp.: The Biomechanics of Directional Hearing
,”
J. Exp. Biol.
,
202
(
14
), pp.
1865
1876
.http://jeb.biologists.org/content/202/14/1865.short
7.
Christensen-Dalsgaard
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Directional Hearing in Nonmammalian Tetrapods
,”
Sound Source Localization
,
Springer
,
New York
, pp.
67
123
.
8.
Larsen
,
O. N.
,
Dooling
,
R. J.
, and
Michelsen
,
A.
,
2006
, “
The Role of Pressure Difference Reception in the Directional Hearing of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)
,”
J. Comp. Physiol. A
,
192
(
10
), pp.
1063
1072
.
9.
Vossen
,
C.
,
Christensen-Dalsgaard
,
J.
, and
van Hemmen
,
J. L.
,
2010
, “
Analytical Model of Internally Coupled Ears
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
128
(
2
), pp.
909
918
.
10.
Tan
,
L.
,
Miles
,
R.
,
Weinstein
,
M.
,
Miller
,
R.
,
Su
,
Q.
,
Cui
,
W.
, and
Gao
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Response of a Biologically Inspired MEMS Differential Microphone Diaphragm
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
4743
, pp.
91
98
.
11.
Yoo
,
K.
,
Gibbons
,
C.
,
Su
,
Q.
,
Miles
,
R.
, and
Tien
,
N.
,
2002
, “
Fabrication of Biomimetic 3-D Structured Diaphragms
,”
Sens. Actuators A
,
97
(
8
), pp.
448
456
.
12.
Wu
,
N.
,
Miles
,
R.
, and
Aydin
,
O.
,
2004
, “
A Digital Feedback Damping Scheme for a Micromachined Directional Microphone
,”
2004 American Control Conference
(
ACC
), Boston, MA, Jun. 30–Jul. 2, Vol.
4
, pp.
3315
3320
.http://ws2.binghamton.edu/me/msl/PDF_Conference/2004%20Jun%20ACC%20Boston%20Conference_pdf%201.pdf
13.
Gao
,
J.
,
Miles
,
R. N.
, and
Cui
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Stress Analysis of a Novel MEMS Microphone Chip Using Finite Element Analysis
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2005-82823.
14.
Miles
,
R.
, and
Hoy
,
R.
,
2006
, “
The Development of a Biologically-Inspired Directional Microphone for Hearing Aids
,”
Audiol. Neurootol.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
86
94
.
15.
Bicen
,
B.
,
Jolly
,
S.
,
Jeelani
,
K.
,
Garcia
,
C. T.
,
Hall
,
N. A.
,
Degertekin
,
F. L.
,
Su
,
Q.
,
Cui
,
W.
, and
Miles
,
R. N.
,
2009
, “
Integrated Optical Displacement Detection and Electrostatic Actuation for Directional Optical Microphones With Micromachined Biomimetic Diaphragms
,”
IEEE Sens. J.
,
9
(
12
), pp.
1933
1941
.
16.
Miles
,
R. N.
,
Su
,
Q.
,
Cui
,
W.
,
Shetye
,
M.
,
Degertekin
,
F. L.
,
Bicen
,
B.
,
Garcia
,
C.
,
Jones
,
S.
, and
Hall
,
N.
,
2009
, “
A Low-Noise Differential Microphone Inspired by the Ears of the Parasitoid Fly Ormia ochracea
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
125
(
4 Pt. 1
), pp.
2013
2026
.
17.
Miles
,
R. N.
,
Cui
,
W.
,
Su
,
Q. T.
, and
Homentcovschi
,
D.
,
2015
, “
A MEMS Low-Noise Sound Pressure Gradient Microphone With Capacitive Sensing
,”
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
,
24
(
1
), pp.
241
248
.
18.
Ishfaque
,
A.
, and
Kim
,
B.
,
2015
, “
Design of Centrally Supported Biomimetic MEMS Microphone for Acoustic Source Localization
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2015-51285.
19.
Xu
,
H.
,
Xu
,
X.
,
Jia
,
H.
,
Guan
,
L.
, and
Bao
,
M.
,
2015
, “
A Biomimetic Coupled Circuit Based Microphone Array for Sound Source Localization
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
138
(
3
), pp.
EL270
EL275
.
20.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Bauer
,
R.
,
Windmill
,
J. F.
, and
Uttamchandani
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Multi-Band Asymmetric Piezoelectric MEMS Microphone Inspired by the Ormia ochracea
,”
2016 IEEE 29th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
(
MEMS
), Shanghai, China, Jan. 24–28, pp.
1114
1117
.
21.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Windmill
,
J. F.
, and
Uttamchandani
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Biomimetic MEMS Directional Microphone Structures for Multi-Band Operation
,”
IEEE
SENSORS
, Valencia, Spain, Nov. 2–5, pp.
440
443
.
22.
Kuntzman
,
M. L.
, and
Hall
,
N. A.
,
2014
, “
Sound Source Localization Inspired by the Ears of the Ormia ochracea
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
105
(
3
), p.
033701
.
23.
Hunt
,
F. V.
,
1954
,
Electroacoustics: The Analysis of Transduction, and Its Historical Background
,
Harvard University Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
24.
Wong
,
G.
, and
Embleton
,
T.
,
1995
,
AIP Handbook of Condenser Microphones: Theory, Calibration, and Measurements
(AIP Series in Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing),
AIP Press
,
New York
.
25.
Beranek
,
L. L.
, and
Mellow
,
T.
,
2012
,
Acoustics: Sound Fields and Transducers
,
Academic Press
,
Waltham, MA
.
You do not currently have access to this content.