Rainfall, one of the most important resources for all life and for the environment, is also the most difficult meteorological parameter to measure, mainly due to its nonstationnarity in space and time. Several powerful instruments exist today to measure rainfall, but they often suffer from some strong disadvantages, ranging from high costs and variable space and time coverage to low accuracy. In this study, we explain how a measure the sound of the falling rain could provide a reliable metric of the rainfall. We demonstrate its reliability in a specific case study, for a long rainy tropical event of the Indian monsoon and in noisy conditions. The final determination coefficient computed in cross validation reaches R2 = 0.9, without any treatment of the signals other than a simple smoothing window. If confirmed through more intensive research, our findings could help in the design of a highly useful acoustic rain gauge, of great value to developing countries that experience intense but poorly studied rainy seasons.

References

References
1.
Sankaran
,
M.
,
Hanan
,
N. P.
,
Scholes
,
R. J.
,
Ratnam
,
J.
,
Augustine
,
D. J.
,
Cade
,
B. S.
,
Gignoux
,
J.
,
Higgins
,
S. I.
,
Le Roux
,
X.
,
Ludwig
,
F.
,
Ardo
,
J.
,
Banyikwa
,
F.
,
Bronn
,
A.
,
Bucini
,
G.
,
Caylor
,
K. K.
,
Coughenour
,
M. B.
,
Diouf
,
A.
,
Ekaya
,
W.
,
Feral
,
C. J.
,
February
,
E. C.
,
Frost
,
P. G. H.
,
Hiernaux
,
P.
,
Hrabar
,
H.
,
Metzger
,
K. L.
,
Prins
,
H. H. T.
,
Ringrose
,
S.
,
Sea
,
W.
,
Tews
,
J.
,
Worden
,
J.
, and
Zambatis
,
N.
,
2005
, “
Determinants of Woody Cover in African Savannas
,”
Nature
,
438
(
7069
), pp.
846
849
.10.1038/nature04070
2.
Millan
,
M. M.
,
Estrela
,
M. J.
,
Sanz
,
M. J.
,
Mantilla
,
E.
,
Martin
,
M.
,
Pastor
,
F.
,
Salvador
,
R.
,
Vallejo
,
R.
,
Alonso
,
L.
,
Gangoiti
,
G.
,
Ilardia
,
J. L.
,
Navazo
,
M.
,
Albizuri
,
A.
,
Artinano
,
B.
,
Ciccioli
,
P.
,
Kallos
,
G.
,
Carvalho
,
R. A.
,
Andres
,
D.
,
Hoff
,
A.
,
Werhahn
,
J.
,
Seufert
,
G.
, and
Versino
,
B.
,
2005
, “
Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model
,”
J. Clim.
,
18
(
5
), pp.
684
701
.10.1175/JCLI-3283.1
3.
von Hardenberg
,
J.
,
Ferraris
,
L.
,
Rebora
,
N.
, and
Provenzale
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Meteorological Uncertainty and Rainfall Downscaling
,”
Nonlin. Processes Geophys.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
193
199
.10.5194/npg-14-193-2007
4.
Gaucherel
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Pluviophone
,”
P.
Intellectuelle
, ed., INPI, I. N. d. l.,
Paris
, p.
7
.
5.
Arthur-Hartranft
,
S. T.
,
Carlson
,
T. N.
, and
Clarke
,
K. C.
,
2003
, “
Satellite and Ground-Based Microclimate and Hydrologic Analyses Coupled With a Regional Urban Growth Model
,”
Remote Sens. Environ.
,
86
(
3
), pp.
385
400
.10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00080-4
6.
Nystuen
,
J. A.
,
1986
, “
Rainfall Measurements Using Underwater Ambient Noise
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
79
(4), pp.
972
982
.10.1121/1.393695
7.
Koster
,
R. D.
, and
Suarez
,
M. J.
,
1994
, “
The Components of a ‘SVAT’ Scheme and Their Effects on a GCM's Hydrological Cycle
,”
Adv. Water Resour.
,
17
(
1–2
), pp.
61
78
.10.1016/0309-1708(94)90024-8
8.
Mechoso
,
C. R.
,
Robertson
,
A. W.
,
Barth
,
N.
,
Davey
,
M. K.
,
Delecluse
,
P.
,
Gent
,
P. R.
,
Ineson
,
S.
,
Kirtman
,
B.
,
Latif
,
M.
,
Letreut
,
H.
,
Nagai
,
T.
,
Neelin
,
J. D.
,
Philander
,
S. G. H.
,
Polcher
,
J.
,
Schopf
,
P. S.
,
Stockdale
,
T.
,
Suarez
,
M. J.
,
Terray
,
L.
,
Thual
,
O.
, and
Tribbia
,
J. J.
,
1995
, “
The Seasonal Cycle Over the Tropical Pacific in Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Models
,”
Mon. Weather Rev.
,
123
(
9
), pp.
2825
2838
.10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123%3C2825:TSCOTT%3E;2.0.CO;2
9.
Gaucherel
,
C.
,
2005
, “
Pluviophone Actif
,”
P.
Intellectuelle
, ed., INPI, I. N. d. l.,
Paris
, p.
6
.
10.
Nystuen
,
J. A.
,
2001
, “
Listening to Raindrops From Underwater: An Acoustic Disdrometer
,”
Atmos. Oceanic Technol.
,
18
(10), pp.
1640
1657
.10.1175/1520-0426(2001)018%3C1640:LTRFUA%3E2.0.CO;2
11.
Lemon
,
D. D.
,
Farmer
,
D. M.
, and
Watts
,
D. R.
,
1984
, “
Acoustic Measurements of Wind Speed and Precipitation Over a Continental Shelf
,”
J. Geophys. Res.
,
89
(C3), pp.
3462
3472
.10.1029/JC089iC03p03462
12.
de Jong
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Low Cost Disdrometer
,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
13.
Harris
,
C.
,
1966
, “
Absorption of Sound in Air Versus Humidity and Temperature
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
40
(
1
), pp.
148
159
.10.1121/1.1910031
14.
Ma.
,
B. B.
, and
Nystuen
,
J. A.
,
2005
, “
Passive Acoustic Detection and Measurement of Rainfall at Sea
,”
J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.
,
22
(8), pp.
1225
1248
.10.1175/JTECH1773.1
15.
Walcott
,
C.
,
Mager
,
J. N.
, and
Piper
,
W.
,
2006
, “
Changing Territories, Changing Tunes: Male Loons, Gavia Immer, Change Their Vocalizations When They Change Territories
,”
Anim. Behav.
,
71
(
3
), pp.
673
683
.10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.07.011
You do not currently have access to this content.