Vibration source information (source number, source waveforms, and source contributions) of gears, bearings, motors, and shafts is very important for machinery condition monitoring, fault diagnosis, and especially vibration monitoring and control. However, it has been a challenging to effectively extract the source information from the measured mixed vibration signals without a priori knowledge of the mixing mode and sources. In this paper, we propose source number estimation, source separation, and source contribution evaluation methods based on an enhanced independent component analysis (EICA). The effects of nonlinear mixing mode and different source number on source separation are studied with typical vibration signals, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods is validated by numerical case studies and experimental studies on a thin shell test bed. The conclusions show that the proposed methods have a high accuracy for thin shell structures. This research benefits for application of independent component analysis (ICA) to solve the vibration monitoring and control problems for thin shell structures and provides important references for machinery condition monitoring and fault diagnosis.

References

References
1.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
1999
, “
Fast and Robust Fixed-Point Algorithms for Independent Component Analysis
,”
IEEE Trans. Neural Netw.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
626
634
.10.1109/72.761722
2.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
, and
Oja
,
E.
,
2000
, “
Independent Component Analysis: Algorithms and Applications
,”
Neural Netw.
,
13
(
4–5
), pp.
411
430
.10.1016/S0893-6080(00)00026-5
3.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
Ramkumar
,
P.
,
Parkkonen
,
L.
, and
Hari
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Independent Component Analysis of Short-Time Fourier Transforms for Spontaneous EEG/MEG Analysis
,”
NeuroImage
,
49
(
1
), pp.
257
271
.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.08.028
4.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Independent Component Analysis: Recent Advances
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A
,
371
(
1984
), p.
20110534
.10.1098/rsta.2011.0534
5.
Shimizu
,
S.
,
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
Hoyer
,
P. O.
, and
Kano
,
Y.
,
2006
, “
Finding a Causal Ordering Via Independent Component Analysis
,”
Comput. Stat. Data Anal.
,
50
(
11
), pp.
3278
3293
.10.1016/j.csda.2005.05.004
6.
Amari
,
S. I.
,
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
Lee
,
S. Y.
,
Lee
,
T. W.
, and
Sanchez
,
V. D.
,
2002
, “
Blind Signal Separation and Independent Component Analysis
,”
Neurocomputing
,
49
(
1–4
), pp.
1
5
.10.1016/S0925-2312(02)00509-X
7.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
Karhunen
,
J.
, and
Oja
,
E.
,
2001
,
Independent Component Analysis
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
New York.
8.
Zhang
,
Z. L.
,
Jung
,
T. P.
,
Makeig
,
S.
, and
Rao
,
B. D.
,
2013
, “
Compressed Sensing for Energy-Efficient Wireless Telemonitoring of Noninvasive Fetal ECG Via Block Sparse Bayesian Learning
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
60
(
2
), pp.
300
309
.10.1109/TBME.2012.2226175
9.
Ha Quang
,
M.
, and
Wiskott
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Multivariate Slow Feature Analysis and Decorrelation Filtering for Blind Source Separation
,”
IEEE Trans. Image Process.
,
22
(
7
), pp.
2737
2750
.10.1109/TIP.2013.2257808
10.
Qingbo
,
H.
,
Ruxu
,
D.
, and
Fanrang
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Phase Space Feature Based on Independent Component Analysis for Machine Health Diagnosis
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021014
.10.1115/1.4005006
11.
Qiu
,
R. C.
,
Zhen
,
H.
,
Zhe
,
C.
,
Nan
,
G.
,
Ranganathan
,
R.
,
Shujie
,
H.
, and
Gang
,
Z.
,
2011
, “
Cognitive Radio Network for the Smart Grid: Experimental System Architecture, Control Algorithms, Security, and Microgrid Testbed
,”
IEEE Trans. Smart Grid
,
2
(
4
), pp.
724
740
.10.1109/TSG.2011.2160101
12.
Wang
,
X. F.
, and
Zhang
,
X. P.
,
2013
, “
An ICA Mixture Hidden Conditional Random Field Model for Video Event Classification
,”
IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol.
,
23
(
1
), pp.
46
59
.10.1109/TCSVT.2012.2203195
13.
Huang
,
Y. X.
,
Zha
,
X. F.
,
Lee
,
J.
, and
Liu
,
C. L.
,
2013
, “
Discriminant Diffusion Maps Analysis: A Robust Manifold Learner for Dimensionality Reduction and Its Applications in Machine Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Proc.
,
34
(
1–2
), pp.
277
297
.10.1016/j.ymssp.2012.04.021
14.
Cheng
,
W.
,
Lee
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
Z. S.
, and
He
,
Z. J.
,
2012
, “
Independent Component Analysis Based Source Number Estimation and Its Comparison for Mechanical Systems
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
331
(
23
), pp.
5153
5167
.10.1016/j.jsv.2012.06.021
15.
Cheng
W.
,
Zhang
,
Z. S.
,
Lee
,
S.
, and
He
,
Z. J.
,
2013
, “
Investigations of Denoising Source Separation Technique and Its Application to Source Separation and Identification of Mechanical Vibration Signals,
J. Vib. Control
, Advance online publication.10.1177/1077546313483789
16.
Cheng
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
Z. S.
,
Lee
,
S.
, and
He
,
Z. J.
,
2012
, “
Source Contribution Evaluation of Mechanical Vibration Signals Via Enhanced Independent Component Analysis
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021014
.10.1115/1.4005806
17.
Cheng
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
Z. S.
, and
He
,
Z. J.
,
2011
, “
Enhance the Separation Performance of ICA Via Clustering Evaluation and Its Applications
,”
Adv. Sci. Lett.
,
4
(
6–7
), pp.
1951
1956
.10.1166/asl.2011.1376
18.
Wang
,
Z. Y.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Dong
,
G. M.
, and
Zhou
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Constrained Independent Component Analysis and Its Application to Machine Fault Diagnosis
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Proc.
,
25
(
7
), pp.
2501
2512
.10.1016/j.ymssp.2011.03.006
19.
Salazar
,
A.
,
Vergara
,
L.
, and
Llinares
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Learning Material Defect Patterns by Separating Mixtures of Independent Component Analyzers From NDT Sonic Signals
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Proc.
,
24
(
6
), pp.
1870
1886
.10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.01.007
20.
Loutas
,
T. H.
,
Roulias
,
D.
,
Pauly
,
E.
, and
Kostopoulos
, V
.
,
2011
, “
The Combined Use of Vibration, Acoustic Emission and Oil Debris On-Line Monitoring Towards a More Effective Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Proc.
,
25
(
4
), pp.
1339
1352
.10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.11.007
21.
Rashid
,
M. M.
, and
Yu
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Hidden Markov Model Based Adaptive Independent Component Analysis Approach for Complex Chemical Process Monitoring and Fault Detection
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
51
(
15
), pp.
5506
5514
.10.1021/ie300203u
22.
Cha
,
P. D.
, and
Rinker
,
J. M.
,
2012
, “
Enforcing Nodes to Suppress Vibration Along a Harmonically Forced Damped Euler-Bernoulli Beam
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
134
(
5
), p.
051010
.10.1115/1.4006375
23.
Laima
,
S. J.
,
Li
,
H.
,
Chen
,
W. L.
, and
Li
,
F. C.
,
2013
, “
Investigation and Control of Vortex-Induced Vibration of Twin Box Girders
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
39
, pp.
205
221
.10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2012.10.009
24.
Huang
,
X. C.
,
Xu
,
S. Y.
,
Jiang
,
A. H.
, and
Hua
,
H. X.
,
2012
, “
Modeling and Optimization of Floating Raft Systems in Submarines Under Different Objectives by Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
,”
J. Vib. Control
,
18
(
2
), pp.
268
297
.10.1177/1077546311403184
25.
Nejade
,
A.
,
2012
, “
A Prediction Method for Separating and Quantifying Noise Contributions From Casings and Other Plate Like Components in Complex Machines
,”
J. Sound Vibr.
,
331
(
23
), pp.
5028
5039
.10.1016/j.jsv.2012.06.007
26.
Zielinski
,
T. G.
,
Galland
,
M. A.
, and
Ichchou
,
M. N.
,
2012
, “
Fully Coupled Finite-Element Modeling of Active Sandwich Panels With Poroelastic Core
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021007
.10.1115/1.4005026
27.
Hegazy
,
U. H.
,
2010
, “
Nonlinear Vibrations of a Thin Plate Under Simultaneous Internal and External Resonances
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
132
(
5
), p.
051004
.10.1115/1.4001502
28.
Juxi
,
H.
,
Zhiping
,
Q.
, and
Tsung-Chow
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Axisymmetric Vibrations of a Piezoelectric Spherical Shell Submerged in a Compressible Viscous Fluid Medium
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
132
(
6
), p.
061002
.10.1115/1.4001841
29.
Hyvarinen
,
A.
, and
Oja
,
E.
,
1997
, “
A Fast Fixed-Point Algorithm for Independent Component Analysis
,”
Neural Comput.
,
9
(
7
), pp.
1483
1492
.10.1162/neco.1997.9.7.1483
30.
Himberg
,
J.
, and
Hyvarinen
,
A.
,
2003
, “
ICASSO: Software for Investigating the Reliability of ICA Estimates by Clustering and Visualization
,”
IEEE 13th Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing
(
NNSP'03
), Toulouse, France, September 17–19, pp.
259
268
.10.1109/NNSP.2003.1318025
31.
Himberg
,
J.
,
Hyvarinen
,
A.
, and
Esposito
,
F.
,
2004
, “
Validating the Independent Components of Neuroimaging Time Series Via Clustering and Visualization
,”
NeuroImage
,
22
(
3
), pp.
1214
1222
.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.03.027
32.
Levine
,
E.
, and
Domany
,
E.
,
2001
, “
Resampling Method for Unsupervised Estimation of Cluster Validity
,”
Neural Comput.
,
13
(
11
), pp.
2573
2593
.10.1162/089976601753196030
33.
Mead
,
D. J.
, and
Bardell
,
N. S.
, 1986, “
Free Vibration of a Thin Cylindrical Shell With Discrete Axial Stiffeners
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
111
(2), pp.
229
250
.10.1016/S0022-460X(86)80159-6
You do not currently have access to this content.