We herein propose a simple but accurate method for calculating the dynamic properties of an air spring that uses an orifice to produce a damping force. Air springs are commonly used in rail, automotive, and vibration isolation applications. However, because this type of air spring has nonlinear flow characteristics, accurate approaches have not yet been proposed. The restoring and damping forces in an air spring with an orifice damper vary with the amplitude of the body. This amplitude dependency has not been considered in previous studies. We herein propose a simple model for calculating the air spring constant and damping coefficient. However, this requires iterative calculation due to the nonlinearity of the air spring. The theoretical and experimental results are found to agree well with each other. The theoretical equations provide an effective tool for air spring design.

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