Tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) utilize sloshing fluid to absorb and dissipate structural vibrational energy, thereby reducing wind induced dynamic motion. By selecting the appropriate tank length, width, and fluid depth, a rectangular TLD can control two structural sway modes simultaneously if the TLD tank is aligned with the principal axes of the structure. This study considers the influence of the TLD tank orientation on the behavior of a 2D structure-TLD system. The sloshing fluid is represented using a linearized equivalent mechanical model. The mechanical model is coupled to a 2D structure at an angle with respect to the principal axes of the structure. Equations of motion for the system are developed using Lagrange’s equation. If the TLD and structure are not aligned, the system responds as a coupled four degree of freedom system. The proposed model is validated by conducting structure-TLD system tests. The predicted and experimental structural displacements and fluid response are in agreement. An approximate method is developed to provide an initial estimate of the structural response based on an effective mass ratio. The results of this study show that for small TLD orientation angles, the performance of the TLD is insensitive to TLD orientation.

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