This paper examines the problem of identifying cracks in planetary gear systems through the use of vibration sensors on the stationary gearbox housing. In particular, the effect of unequal spacing of planet gears relative to the rotating carrier plate on various frequency components in the vibration spectra is studied. The mathematical analysis is validated with experimental data comparing the vibration signature of helicopter transmissions operating either normally or with damage, leading to shifts in the planet gear positions. The theory presented is able to explain certain features and trends in the measured vibration signals of healthy and faulty transmissions. The characterization offered may serve as a means of detecting damage in planetary gear systems.

References

References
1.
Keller
,
J.
, and
Grabill
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Vibration Monitoring of a UH-60A Main Transmission Planetary Carrier Fault
,”
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Forum, The American Helicopter Society
,
Phoenix
,
AZ.
2.
Stewart
,
R. M.
,
1977
, “
Some Useful Data Analysis Techniques for Gearbox Diagnostics
,” Report No. MHM/R/10/77,
Machine Health Monitoring Group, Institute of Sound and Vibration Research
,
University of Southampton
.
3.
Swansson
,
N. S.
,
1980
, “
Application of Vibration Signal Analysis Techniques to Condition Monitoring
,”
Proceedings of the National Conference on Lubrication
,
Friction and Wear in Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, Barton, ACT: Institution of Engineers
,
Melbourne, Australia
, pp. 262-267.
4.
Favaloro
,
S. C.
,
1985
, “
A Preliminary Evaluation of Some Gear Diagnostics Using Vibration Analysis
,” Report No. AD-A161939, ARL-AERO-RPOP-TM-427,
Aeronautical Research Labs.
,
Melbourne, Australia
.
5.
Szczepanik
,
A.
,
1989
, “
Time Synchronous Averaging of Ball Mill Vibrations
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Process.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
99
107
.10.1016/0888-3270(89)90025-3
6.
Chaari
,
F.
,
Fakhfakh
,
T.
, and
Haddar
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Analytical Investigation on the Effect of Gear Teeth Faults on the Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear Set
,”
Noise Vib. Control Worldw.
,
37
(
8
), pp.
9
15
.10.1260/095745606778600857
7.
Botman
,
M.
,
1975
, “
Epicyclic Gear Vibrations
,”
Proceedings of the Design Engineering Technical Conference (75-DET-14)
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
Washington, D.C.
8.
Botman
,
M.
,
1980
, “
Vibration Measurements on Planetary Gears of Aircraft Turbine Engines
,”
J. Aircr.
,
17
(
5
), pp.
351
357
.10.2514/3.57912
9.
Toda
,
A.
, and
Botman
,
M.
,
1979
, “
Planet Indexing in Planetary Gears for Minimum Vibration
,”
Proceedings of the Design Engineering Technical Conference (79-DET-73)
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, St. Louis
,
MO.
10.
Bodas
,
A.
, and
Kahraman
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Influence of Carrier and Gear Manufacturing Errors on the Static Load Sharing Behavior of Planetary Gear Sets
,”
JSME Int. J., Ser. C
, 47(
3
), pp.
908
915
.10.1299/jsmec.47.908
11.
Kahraman
,
A.
,
1994
, “
Natural Modes of Planetary Gear Trains
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
173
(
1
), pp.
125
130
.10.1006/jsvi.1994.1222
12.
Kahraman
,
A.
,
1994
, “
Planetary Gear Train Dynamics
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
116
(
3
), pp.
713
720
.10.1115/1.2919441
13.
Kahraman
,
A.
,
2001
, “
Free Torsional Vibration Characteristics of Compound Planetary Gear Sets
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
,
36
(
8
), pp.
953
971
.10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00033-7
14.
Yuksel
,
C.
, and
Kahraman
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Dynamic Tooth Loads of Planetary Gear Sets Having Tooth Profile Wear
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
,
39
(
7
), pp.
695
715
.10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2004.03.001
15.
Ambarisha
,
V. K.
, and
Parker
,
R. G.
,
2006
, “
Suppression of Planet Mode Response in Planetary Gear Dynamics Through Mesh Phasing
,”
ASME J. Vibr. Acoust.
,
128
(
2
), pp.
133
142
.10.1115/1.2171712
16.
Lin
,
J.
, and
Parker
,
R. G.
,
1999
, “
Analytical Characterization of the Unique Properties of Planetary Gear Free Vibration
,”
ASME J. Vibr. Acoust.
,
121
(
3
), pp.
316
321
.10.1115/1.2893982
17.
Lin
,
J.
, and
Parker
,
R. G.
,
2000
, “
Structured Vibration Characteristics of Planetary Gears With Unequally Spaced Planets
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
233
(
5
), pp.
921
928
.10.1006/jsvi.1999.2581
18.
Lin
,
J.
, and
Parker
,
R. G.
,
2002
, “
Planetary Gear Parametric Instability Caused by Mesh Stiffness Variation
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
249
(
1
), pp.
129
145
.10.1006/jsvi.2001.3848
19.
Parker
,
R. G.
,
2000
, “
A Physical Explanation for the Effectiveness of Planet Phasing to Suppress Planetary Gear Vibration
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
236
(
4
), pp.
561
573
.10.1006/jsvi.1999.2859
20.
Parker
,
R. G.
, and
Lin
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Mesh Phasing Relationships in Planetary and Epicyclic Gears
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
126
(
2
), pp.
365
370
.10.1115/1.1667892
21.
McFadden
,
P. D.
, and
Smith
,
J. D.
,
1985
, “
An Explanation for the Asymmetry of the Modulation Sidebands About the Tooth Meshing Frequency in Epicyclic Gear Vibration
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci.
,
199
(
1
), pp.
65
70
.10.1243/PIME_PROC_1985_199_092_02
22.
Samuel
,
P. D.
,
2003
, “
Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics Using Constrained Adaptive Lifting
,” Ph.D. thesis,
University of Maryland
,
College Park, MD.
23.
McNames
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Fourier Series Analysis of Epicyclic Gearbox Vibration
,”
ASME J. Vibr. Acoust.
,
124
(
1
), pp.
150
153
.10.1115/1.1403735
24.
Patrick
,
R.
,
Ferri
,
A. A.
, and
Vachtsevanos
,
G. J.
,
2007
, “
Detection of Carrier-Plate Cracks Using Sidebands of Vibration Spectra
,”
Proceedings of the International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information In Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE)
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
Las Vegas, NV.
25.
Patrick
,
R.
,
2007
, “
A Model Based Framework for Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis of Dynamical Systems With an Application to Helicopter Transmissions
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Georgia Institute of Technology
,
Atlanta, GA.
26.
Blunt
,
D. M.
, and
Keller
,
J. A.
,
2006
, “
Detection of a Fatigue Crack in a UH-60A Planet Gear Carrier Using Vibration Analysis
,”
Mech. Syst. Signal Process.
,
20
(
8
), pp.
2095
2111
.10.1016/j.ymssp.2006.05.010
27.
Sahrmann
,
G. J.
,
2004
, “
Determination of the Crack Propagation Life of a Planetary Gear Carrier
,”
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Forum
,
American Helicopter Society
,
Baltimore, MD.
28.
Wu
,
B.
,
Saxena
,
A.
,
Khawaja
,
T. S.
,
Patrick
,
R.
,
Vachtsevanos
,
G. J.
, and
Sparis
,
P.
,
2004
, “
An Approach to Fault Diagnosis of Helicopter Planetary Gears
,”
Proceedings of AUTOTESTCON
,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
,
San Antonio, TX.
29.
Hines
,
J. A.
,
Muench
,
D. S.
,
Keller
,
J. A.
, and
Garga
,
A. K.
,
2005
, “
Effects of Time-Synchronous Averaging Implementations on HUMS Features for UH-60A Planetary Carrier Cracking
,”
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Forum, American Helicopter Society
,
Grapevine, TX
, pp.
218
227
.
You do not currently have access to this content.