Output variables of dynamic systems subject to random inputs are often quantified by mean-square calculations. Computationally for linear systems, these typically involve integration of the output spectral density over frequency. Numerically, this is a straightforward task and, analytically, methods exist to find mean-square values as functions of transfer function (frequency response) coefficients. These formulations offer analytical relationships between system parameters and mean-square response. This paper develops further analytical relationships in calculating mean-square values as functions of transfer function and state-space properties. Specifically, mean-square response is formulated from (i) system pole-zero locations, (ii) as a spectral decomposition, and (iii) in terms of a system matrix transfer function. Direct, closed-form relationships between response and these properties are afforded. These new analytical representations of the mean-square calculation can provide significant insight into dynamic system response and optimal design/tuning of dynamic systems.

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