Piezothermoelastic effects of distributed piezoelectric sensor/actuator and structural systems are studied. Distributed controls (static and dynamic) of piezoelectric laminates subjected to a steady-state temperature field are investigated. Piezothermoelastic constitutive equations are defined, followed by three energy functionals for the displacement, electric, and temperature fields, respectively. A new 3-D piezothermoelastic thin hexahedron finite element with three internal degrees of freedom is formulated using a variational formulation which includes thermal, electric, and mechanical energies. A system equation for the piezoelectric continuum exposed to combined displacement, electric, and temperature fields is formulated. Distributed sensing and control equations of piezoelectric laminates in a temperature field are derived. Thermal influences on the sensing and control of piezoelectric PZT/steel laminates are investigated in case studies.

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