The purpose of this paper is to direct the attention of machine designers to a concept of “failure” which is far more inclusive than mechanical failures. For all machines used by man there are three general criteria that must be simultaneously met. These are function, affordability, and the human element. Failure of a design in any one of these criteria can result in a defective design and can have an adverse impact on society. The paper challenges the designer to prevent these failures and presents basic concepts for doing so.

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