This paper presents grid refinement studies for statistically steady, two-dimensional (2D) flows of an incompressible fluid: a flat plate at Reynolds numbers equal to 107, 108, and 109 and the NACA 0012 airfoil at angles of attack of 0, 4, and 10 deg with Re = 6 × 106. Results are based on the numerical solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations supplemented by one of three eddy-viscosity turbulence models of choice: the one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras and the two-equation models k – ω SST and . Grid refinement studies are performed in sets of geometrically similar structured grids, permitting an unambiguous definition of the typical cell size, using double precision and an iterative convergence criterion that guarantees a numerical error dominated by the discretization error. For each case, different grid sets with the same number of cells but different near-wall spacings are used to generate a data set that allows more than one estimation of the numerical uncertainty for similar grid densities. The selected flow quantities include functional (integral), surface, and local flow quantities, namely, drag/resistance and lift coefficients; skin friction and pressure coefficients at the wall; and mean velocity components and eddy viscosity at specified locations in the boundary-layer region. An extra set of grids significantly more refined than those proposed for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty is generated for each test case. Using power law extrapolations, these extra solutions are used to obtain an approximation of the exact solution that allows the assessment of the performance of the numerical uncertainty estimations performed for the basis data set. However, it must be stated that with grids up to 2.5 (plate) and 8.46 (airfoil) million cells in two dimensions, the asymptotic range is not attained for many of the selected flow quantities. All this data is available online to the community.
A Contribution for the Assessment of Discretization Error Estimators Based on Grid Refinement Studies
Voorthuizen, The Netherlands
Manuscript received December 14, 2017; final manuscript received July 3, 2018; published online August 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Christopher J. Roy.
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Eça, L., Vaz, G., and Hoekstra, M. (August 6, 2018). "A Contribution for the Assessment of Discretization Error Estimators Based on Grid Refinement Studies." ASME. J. Verif. Valid. Uncert. June 2018; 3(2): 021001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4040803
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