In this paper, we investigate the coupled interaction between a new short intake design with a modern fan in a high-bypass ratio civil engine, specifically under the off-design condition of high incidence. The interaction is expected to be much more significant than that on a conventional intake. The performance of both the intake-alone and rotor-alone configurations are examined under isolation. Subsequently, a comprehensive understanding on the two-way interaction between intake and fan is presented. This includes the effect of fan on intake angles of attack (AoA) tolerance (FoI) and the effect of circumferential and radial flow distortion induced by the intake on the fan performance (IoF). In the FoI scenario, the rotor effectively redistributes the mass flow at the fan-face. The AoA tolerance of the short-intake design has increased by ≈4 deg when compared with the intake-alone configuration. Dynamic nature of distortion due to shock unsteadiness has been quantified. ST plots and power spectral density (PSD) of pressure fluctuations show the existence of a spectral gap between the shock unsteadiness and blade passing, with almost an order of magnitude difference in the corresponding frequencies. In the IoF scenario, both the “large” (O(360 deg)) and “small” scale distortion (O(10–60 deg)) induced by the intake results in a non-uniform inflow to the rotor. Sector analysis reveals a substantial variation in the local operating condition of the fan as opposed to its steady characteristic. Streamline curvature, upwash, and wake thickening are identified to be the three key factors affecting the fan performance. These underlying mechanisms are discussed in detail to provide further insights into the physical understanding of the fan-intake interaction. In addition to the shock-induced separation on the intake lip, the current study shows that shorter intakes are much more prone to the upwash effect at higher AoA. Insufficient flow straightening along the engine axis is reconfirmed to be one of the limiting factors for the short-intake design.
Toward Future Installations: Mutual Interactions of Short Intakes With Modern High Bypass Fans
Manuscript received February 1, 2019; final manuscript received June 14, 2019; published online July 26, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Rakesh Srivastava.
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Vadlamani, N. R., Cao, T., Watson, R., and Tucker, P. G. (July 26, 2019). "Toward Future Installations: Mutual Interactions of Short Intakes With Modern High Bypass Fans." ASME. J. Turbomach. August 2019; 141(8): 081013. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4044080
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