The measurement accuracy of the temperature/pressure probe mounted at the leading edge of a turbine/compressor blade is crucial for estimating the fuel consumption of a turbo-fan engine. Apart from the measurement error itself, the probe also introduces extra losses. This again would compromise the measurement accuracy of the overall engine efficiency. This paper utilizes high-fidelity numerical analysis to understand the complex flow around the probe and quantify the loss sources due to the interaction between the blade and its instrumentation. With the inclusion of leading-edge probes, three-dimensional flow phenomena develop, with some flow features acting in a similar manner to a jet in cross flow. The separated flow formed at the leading edge of the probe blocks a large area of the probe bleedhole, which is one of the reasons why the probe accuracy can be sensitive to Mach and Reynolds numbers. The addition of 4% free-stream turbulence is shown to have a marginal impact on the jet trajectory originated from the probe bleedhole. However, a slight reduction is observed in the size of the separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the probe, preceding the two bleedhole exits. The free-stream turbulence also has a significant impact on the size of the separation bubble near the trailing edge of the blade. With the addition of the free-stream turbulence, the loss observed within the trailing edge wake is reduced. More than 50% of the losses at the cascade exit are generated by the leading-edge probe. A breakdown of the dissipation terms from the mean flow kinetic energy equation demonstrates that the Reynolds stresses are the key terms in dissipating the counter-rotating vortex pairs with the viscous stresses responsible for the boundary layer.

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