Abstract

Turbofan rotor–stator aeromechanic and aeroacoustics modeling has been traditionally developed by considering separately the aerodynamic and acoustic response of the fan and the stator to inflow nonuniformities. The present paper develops a model for the coupled fan–stator response for a realistic 3D geometry. The coupling mechanism is assumed to be mainly carried by scattered waves bouncing back and forth between the fan and the stator. The relationship between sources and state elements at three regions (inlet (1), in-between fan and stator (2), and exit (3)) is derived in terms of a scattering matrix S. The model is applied to two fan configurations: (1) a fully subsonic fan and (2) a transonic tip speed fan. The scattering matrix terms, up to the 5th blade passing frequency (BPF), are calculated by using CAAT, an Euler-based code. Results show coupling adds about 6 dB to the sound power level (PWL) of the transonic fan configuration but has a small effect for the subsonic fan configuration. The analysis of the propagating modes shows that, for the transonic configuration, the inlet mode at 1BPF propagates in regions 2 and 3 but is cut off in region 1. This reinforces the coupling process by trapping the acoustic mode 1BPF in region 2. Although this trapped energy is mainly due to the 1BPF of the fan wake, the fan scatters this energy into higher order acoustic modes and thus produces redistribution toward higher frequency of the acoustic spectra. Finally, adding a liner in region 2 reduces the energy of 1BPF mode propagating upstream and impinging on the fan. This mitigates the effect of the fan–stator coupling.

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