Windmilling requirements for aircraft engines often define propulsion and airframe design parameters. The present study is focused on two key quantities of interest during windmill operation: fan rotational speed and stage losses. A model for the rotor exit flow is developed that serves to bring out a similarity parameter for the fan rotational speed. Furthermore, the model shows that the spanwise flow profiles are independent of the throughflow, being determined solely by the configuration geometry. Interrogation of previous numerical simulations verifies the self-similar nature of the flow. The analysis also demonstrates that the vane inlet dynamic pressure is the appropriate scale for the stagnation pressure loss across the rotor and splitter. Examination of the simulation results for the stator reveals that the flow blockage resulting from the severely negative incidence that occurs at windmill remains constant across a wide range of mass flow rates. For a given throughflow rate, the velocity scale is then shown to be that associated with the unblocked vane exit area, leading naturally to the definition of a dynamic pressure scale for the stator stagnation pressure loss. The proposed scaling procedures for the component losses are applied to the flow configuration of Prasad and Lord (2010). Comparison of simulation results for the rotor-splitter and stator losses determined using these procedures indicates very good agreement. Analogous to the loss scaling, a procedure based on the fan speed similarity parameter is developed to determine the windmill rotational speed and is also found to be in good agreement with engine data. Thus, despite their simplicity, the methods developed here possess sufficient fidelity to be employed in design prediction models for aircraft propulsion systems.

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