This paper aims for the analysis of experimental and numerical results of windmilling flow topologies far from freewheeling condition. Two major cooling fans were investigated: a baseline design and an innovative one meant to reach good performance in both compressor and turbine modes. Experiments are conducted with global and local characterizations to determine energy recovery potential and local loss mechanisms. Also, tests were performed on a turbofan engine to confirm some trends observed on the cooling fans. The numerical study is carried out with mixing plane steady simulations, the results of which are in fair agreement with experimental data. The difference of local topology between freewheeling and highly loaded windmill demonstrates that classical deviation rules such as Carter's are not well-suited to highly loaded windmilling flows. Finally, under certain conditions, the minor influence of the stator on the rotor topology indicates that nonrotating elements can be considered as loss generators.

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