Experiments preformed in the JHU refractive index matched facility examine flow phenomena developing in the rotor passage of an axial compressor at the onset of stall. High-speed imaging of cavitation performed at low pressures qualitatively visualizes vortical structures. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements provide detailed snapshots and ensemble statistics of the flow in a series of meridional planes. At prestall condition, the tip leakage vortex (TLV) breaks up into widely distributed intermittent vortical structures shortly after rollup. The most prominent instability involves periodic formation of large-scale backflow vortices (BFVs) that extend diagonally upstream, from the suction side (SS) of one blade at midchord to the pressure side (PS) near the leading edge of the next blade. The 3D vorticity distributions obtained from data recorded in closely spaced planes show that the BFVs originate form at the transition between the high circumferential velocity region below the TLV center and the main passage flow radially inward from it. When the BFVs penetrate to the next passage across the tip gap or by circumventing the leading edge, they trigger a similar phenomenon there, sustaining the process. Further reduction in flow rate into the stall range increases the number and size of the backflow vortices, and they regularly propagate upstream of the leading edge of the next blade, where they increase the incidence angle in the tip corner. As this process proliferates circumferentially, the BFVs rotate with the blades, indicating that there is very little through flow across the tip region.

References

References
1.
Pampreen
,
R. C.
,
1993
,
Compressor Surge and Stall
,
Concepts ETI
, Norwich, VT.
2.
Fukano
,
T.
, and
Jang
,
C. M.
,
2004
, “
Tip Clearance Noise of Axial Flow Fans Operating at Design and Off-Design Condition
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
275
(
3
), pp.
1027
1050
.
3.
Schoenenborn
,
H.
, and
Breuer
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Aeroelasticity at Reversed Flow Conditions—Part II: Application to Compressor Surge
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
134
(
6
), p.
061031
.
4.
Day
,
I. J.
,
2016
, “
Stall, Surge and 75 Years of Research
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011001
.
5.
Emmons
,
H. W.
,
Person
,
C. E.
, and
Grant
,
H. P.
,
1955
, “
Compressor Surge and Stall Propagation
,”
Trans. ASME
,
77
(
4
), pp.
455
469
.
6.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1976
, “
Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model
,”
ASME J. Eng. Power
,
98
(
2
), pp.
190
198
.
7.
Day
,
I. J.
,
1993
, “
Stall Inception in Axial Flow Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
115
(
1
), pp.
1
9
.
8.
McDougall
,
N. M.
,
Cumpsty
,
N. A.
, and
Hynes
,
T. P.
,
1990
, “
Stall Inception in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
112
(
1
), pp.
116
123
.
9.
Garnier
,
V. H.
,
Epstein
,
A. H.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1991
, “
Rotating Waves as a Stall Inception Indication in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
113
(
2
), pp.
290
301
.
10.
Camp
,
T. R.
, and
Day
,
I. J.
,
1998
, “
A Study of Spike and Modal Stall Phenomena in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
120
(
7
), pp.
393
401
.
11.
Deppe
,
A.
,
Saathoff
,
H.
, and
Stark
,
U.
,
2005
, “
Spike-Type Stall Inception in Axial-Flow Compressors
,”
6th European Conference on Turbomachinery
, Lille, France, Mar. 7–11, pp. 178–188.
12.
Tan
,
C. S.
,
Day
,
I.
,
Morris
,
S.
, and
Wadia
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Spike-Type Compressor Stall Inception, Detection, and Control
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
42
(
1
), pp.
275
300
.
13.
Vo
,
H. D.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
2008
, “
Criteria for Spike Initiated Rotating Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
130
(
1
), p.
011023
.
14.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
Tanino
,
T.
,
Yoshida
,
S.
, and
Furukawa
,
M.
,
2001
, “
Comparative Studies on Short and Long Length-Scale Stall Cell Propagating in an Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
123
(
1
), pp.
24
32
.
15.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
Yoshida
,
S.
, and
Furukawa
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Short and Long Length-Scale Disturbances Leading to Rotating Stall in an Axial Compressor Stage With Different Stator/Rotor Gaps
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
376
384
.
16.
Kosyna
,
G.
,
Goltz
,
I.
, and
Stark
,
U.
,
2005
, “
Flow Structure of an Axial-Flow Pump From Stable Operation to Deep Stall
,”
ASME
Paper No. FEDSM2005-77350.
17.
Yamada
,
K.
,
Kikuta
,
H.
,
Iwakiri
,
K.
,
Furukawa
,
M.
, and
Gunjishima
,
S.
,
2013
, “
An Explanation for Flow Features of Spike-Type Stall Inception in an Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
2
), p.
021023
.
18.
Pullan
,
G.
,
Young
,
A. M.
,
Day
, I
. J.
,
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
2015
, “
Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
5
), p.
051007
.
19.
Everitt
,
J. N.
, and
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
2012
, “
An Investigation of Stall Inception in Centrifugal Compressor Vaned Diffuser
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
1
), p.
011025
.
20.
Hoying
,
D. A.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
,
Vo
,
H. D.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1999
, “
Role of Blade Passage Flow Structurs in Axial Compressor Rotating Stall Inception
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
121
(
4
), pp.
735
742
.
21.
Hah
,
C.
,
Bergner
,
J.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2006
, “
Short Length-Scale Rotating Stall Inception in a Transonic Axial Compressor—Criteria and Mechanisms
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2006-90045.
22.
Mathioudakis
,
K.
, and
Breugelmans
,
F. A. E.
,
1985
, “
Development of Small Rotating Stall in a Single Stage Axial Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. 85-GT-227.
23.
Mailach
,
R.
,
Lehmann
,
I.
, and
Vogeler
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Rotating Instabilities in an Axial Compressor Originating From the Fluctuating Blade Tip Vortex
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
123
(
3
), pp.
453
463
.
24.
März
,
J.
,
Hah
,
C.
, and
Neise
,
W.
,
2002
, “
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into the Mechanisms of Rotating Instability
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
367
375
.
25.
Young
,
A.
,
Day
,
I.
, and
Pullan
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Stall Warning by Blade Pressure Signature Analysis
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
1
), p.
011033
.
26.
Wu
,
H.
,
Tan
,
D.
,
Miorini
,
R. L.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Three-Dimensional Flow Structures and Associated Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Waterjet Pump Rotor Blade
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
51
(
6
), pp.
1721
1737
.
27.
Miorini
,
R. L.
,
Wu
,
H.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2012
, “
The Internal Structure of the Tip Leakage Vortex Within the Rotor of an Axial Waterjet Pump
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
134
(
3
), p.
031018
.
28.
Tan
,
D.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Wilkes
,
I.
,
Miorini
,
R.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Visualization and Time Resolved PIV Measurements of the Flow in the Tip Region of a Subsonic Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
4
), p.
041007
.
29.
Wu
,
H.
,
Miorini
,
R. L.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Measurements of the Tip Leakage Vortex Structures and Turbulence in the Meridional Plane of an Axial Water-Jet Pump
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
50
(
4
), pp.
989
1003
.
30.
Wu
,
H.
,
Miorini
,
R. L.
,
Tan
,
D.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Turbulence Within the Tip-Leakage Vortex of an Axial Waterjet Pump
,”
AIAA J.
,
50
(
11
), pp.
2574
2587
.
31.
Yamanishi
,
N.
,
Fukao
,
S.
,
Qiao
,
X.
,
Kato
,
C.
, and
Tsujimoto
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
LES Simulation of Backflow Vortex Structure at the Inlet of an Inducer
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
129
(
5
), pp.
587
594
.
32.
Yamamoto
,
K.
, and
Tsujimoto
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Backflow Vortex Cavitation and Its Effects on Cavitation Instabilities
,”
Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
40
54
.
33.
Yokota
,
K.
,
Kurahara
,
K.
,
Kataoka
,
D.
,
Tsujimoto
,
Y.
, and
Acosta
,
A. J.
,
1999
, “
A Study of Swirling Backflow and Vortex Structure at the Inlet of an Inducer
,”
JSME Int. J., Ser. B
,
42
(
3
), pp.
451
459
.
34.
Hah
,
C.
,
Hathaway
,
M.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Investigation of Unsteady Flow Field in a Low-Speed One and a Half Stage Axial Compressor, Part 2: Effects of Tip Gap Size on the Tip Clearance Flow Structure at Near Stall Operation
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2014-27094.
35.
Bai
,
K.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2014
, “
On the Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide Solutions for Index Matching in PIV
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
55
(
4
), pp.
1
6
.
36.
Li
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Tan
,
D.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Tip Clearance and Operating Conditions on the Flow Structure and Reynolds Stresses Within an Axial Compressor Rotor Passage
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2016-57050.
37.
Wieneke
,
B.
,
2005
, “
Stereo-PIV Using Self-Calibration on Particle Images
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
39
(
2
), pp.
267
280
.
38.
Adrian
,
R.
, and
Westerweel
,
J.
,
2011
,
Particle Image Velocimetry
,
Cambridge University Press
,
New York
, pp.
241
248
.
39.
Roth
,
G. I.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Five Techniques for Increasing the Speed and Accuracy of PIV Interrogation
,”
Meas. Sci. Technol.
,
12
(
3
), pp.
238
245
.
40.
Westerweel
,
J.
, and
Scarano
,
F.
,
2005
, “
Universal Outlier Detection for PIV Data
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
39
(
6
), pp.
1096
1100
.
41.
Schrapp
,
H.
,
Stark
,
U.
,
Goltz
,
I.
,
Kosyna
,
G.
, and
Bross
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Structure of the Rotor Tip Flow in a Highly-Loaded Single-Stage Axial-Flow Pump Approaching Stall. Part I: Breakdown of the Tip-Clearance Vortex
,”
ASME
Paper No. HT-FED2004-56780.
42.
Yamada
,
K.
,
Furukawa
,
M.
,
Nakano
,
T.
, and
Inoue
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Unsteady Three-Dimensional Flow Phenomena Due to Breakdown of Tip Leakage Vortex in a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2004-53745.
43.
Furukawa
,
M.
,
Inoue
,
M.
,
Saiki
,
K.
, and
Yamada
,
K.
,
1998
, “
The Role of Tip Leakage Vortex Breakdown in Compressor Rotor Aerodynamics
,”
ASME
Paper No. 98-GT-239.
44.
Tan
,
D.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Wilkes
,
I.
, and
Katz
,
J.
,
2015
, “
The Three Dimensional Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of an Axial Flow Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2015-43385.
45.
Yu
,
X.
,
Liu
,
B.
, and
Jiang
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Characteristics of the Tip Leakage Vortex in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
AIAA J.
,
45
(
4
), pp.
870
878
.
46.
Yokota
,
K.
,
Mitsuda
,
K.
,
Tsujimoto
,
Y.
, and
Kato
,
C.
,
2004
, “
A Study of Vortex Structure in the Shear Layer Between Main Flow and Swirling Backflow
,”
JSME Int. J., Ser. B
,
47
(
3
), pp.
541
548
.
You do not currently have access to this content.