Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) can be a powerful tool in measuring the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness. There are two distinct sources of error for this measurement technique: the ability to experimentally obtain the data and the validity of the heat and mass transfer analogy for the problem being studied. This paper will assess the experimental aspect of this PSP measurement specifically for film cooling applications. Experiments are conducted in an effort to quantifiably bound expected errors associated with temperature nonuniformities in testing and photodegradation effects. Results show that if careful experimental procedures are put in place, both of these effects can be maintained to have less than 0.022 impact on effectiveness. Through accurate semi in situ calibration down to 4% atmospheric pressure, the near-hole distribution of effectiveness is measured with high accuracy. PSP calibrations are performed for multiple coupons, over multiple days. In addition, to reach a partial pressure of zero the calibration vessel was purged of all air by flowing CO2. The primary contribution of this paper lies in the uncertainty analysis performed on the PSP measurement technique. A thorough uncertainty analysis is conducted and described, in order to completely understand the presented measurements and any shortcomings of the PSP technique. This quantification results in larger, albeit more realistic, values of uncertainty and helps provide a better understanding of film cooling effectiveness measurements taken using the PSP technique. The presented uncertainty analysis takes into account all random error sources associated with sampling and calibration, from intensities to effectiveness. Adiabatic film cooling effectiveness measurements are obtained for a single row of film cooling holes inclined at 20 deg, with CO2 used as coolant. Data are obtained for six blowing ratios. Maps of uncertainty corresponding to each effectiveness profile are available for each test case. These maps show that the uncertainty varies spatially over the test surface and high effectiveness corresponds to low uncertainty. The noise floors can be as high as 0.04 at effectiveness levels of 0. Day-to-day repeatability is presented for each blowing ratio and shows that laterally averaged effectiveness data are repeatable within 0.02 effectiveness.

References

References
1.
Pedersen
,
D. R.
,
Eckert
,
E. R. G.
, and
Goldstein
,
R. J.
,
1977
, “
Film Cooling With Large Density Differences Between the Mainstream and the Secondary Fluid Measured by the Heat-Mass Transfer Analogy
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
99
(
4
), pp.
620
627
.
2.
Nicoll
,
W.
, and
Whitelaw
,
J.
,
1967
, “
The Effectiveness of the Uniform Density, Two-Dimensional Wall Jet
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
10
(
5
), pp.
623
639
.
3.
Goldstein
,
R. J.
, and
Jin
,
P.
,
2001
, “
Film Cooling Downstream of a Row of Discrete Holes With Compound Angle
,”
ASME
Paper No. 2000-GT-248.
4.
Zhang
,
L. J.
, and
Fox
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Flate Plate Film Cooling Measurement Using PSP and Gas Chromatograph Techniques
,”
ASME
Paper No. AJTE99-6241.
5.
Jones
,
T. V.
,
1999
, “
Theory for the Use of Foreign Gas in Simulating Film Cooling
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
20
(
3
), pp.
349
354
.
6.
Charbonnier
,
D.
,
Ott
,
P.
,
Jonsson
,
M.
, and
Köbke
,
Th.
,
2009
, “
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Thermal Performance of a Film Cooled Turbine Platform
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2009-60306.
7.
Wright
,
L. M.
,
Gao
,
Z.
,
Varvel
,
T. A.
, and
Han
,
J. C.
,
2005
, “
Assessment of Steady State PSP, TSP, and IR Measurement Techniques for Flat Plate Film Cooling
,”
ASME
Paper No. HT2005-72363.
8.
Han
,
J. C.
, and
Rallabandi
,
A. P.
,
2010
, “
Turbine Blade Film Cooling Using PSP Technique
,”
Front. Heat Mass Transfer
,
1
, pp.
1
21
.
9.
Liu
,
T.
, and
Sullivan
,
J. P.
,
2005
,
Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paints
,
Springer
,
New York
.
10.
Palluconi
,
S.
,
2013
,
UniFIB Pressure Sensitive Paint
,
ISSI
,
Dayton, OH
.
11.
Kameda
,
M.
,
Yoshida
,
M.
,
Sekiya
,
T.
, and
Nakakita
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Humidity Effects in the Response of a Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint
,”
Sens. Actuators B
,
208
, pp.
399
405
.
12.
ASME Performance Test Codes 19.1,
2005
,
Test Uncertainty
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
.
13.
Ahn
,
J.
,
Mhetras
,
S.
, and
Han
,
J. C.
,
2005
, “
Film-Cooling Effectiveness on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip Using Pressure-Sensitive Paint
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
127
(
5
), pp.
521
530
.
14.
Mhetras
,
S.
,
Han
,
J. C.
, and
Rudolph
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Flow Parameter Variations on Full Coverage Film-Cooling Effectiveness for a Gas Turbine Blade
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
134
(
1
), p.
011004
.
15.
Narzary
,
D. P.
,
Liu
,
K. C.
,
Rallabandi
,
A. P.
, and
Han
,
J. C.
,
2012
, “
Influence of Coolant Density on Turbine Blade Film-Cooling Using Pressure Sensitive Paint Technique
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
134
(
3
), p.
031006
.
16.
Egami
,
Y.
, and
Asai
,
K.
,
2002
, “
Effects of Antioxidants on Photodegradation of Porous Pressure-Sensitive Paint
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2002-2905.
17.
Liu
,
Q.
,
2006
,
Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Air Jet Using Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Luminescent Paint
,
University of Central Florida
,
Orlando, FL
.
18.
Sinha
,
A. K.
,
Bogard
,
D. G.
, and
Crawford
,
M. E.
,
1991
, “
Film-Cooling Effectiveness Downstream of a Single Row of Holes With Variable Density Ratio
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
113
(
3
), pp.
442
449
.
19.
Schmidt
,
D. L.
,
Sen
,
B.
, and
Bogard
,
D. G.
,
1996
, “
Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Adiabatic Effectiveness
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
118
(
4
), pp.
807
813
.
20.
Gritsch
,
M.
,
Schulz
,
A.
, and
Wittig
,
S.
,
1998
, “
Adiabatic Wall Effectiveness Measurements of Film-Cooling Holes With Expanded Exits
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
120
(
3
), pp.
549
556
.
21.
Goldstein
,
R. J.
,
Jin
,
P.
, and
Olson
,
R. L.
,
1999
, “
Film Cooling Effectiveness and Mass/Heat Transfer Coefficient Downstream of One Row of Discrete Holes
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
121
(
2
), pp.
225
232
.
22.
Jung
,
I. S.
, and
Lee
,
J. S.
,
2000
, “
Effects of Orientation Angles on Film Cooling Over a Flat Plate: Boundary Layer Temperature Distributions and Adiabatic Film Cooling Effectiveness
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
122
(
1
), pp.
153
160
.
23.
Ling
,
J. P. C. W.
,
Ireland
,
P. T.
, and
Turner
,
L.
,
2002
, “
Full Coverage Film Cooling For Combustor Transition Sections
,”
ASME
Paper No. 2002-GT-30528.
24.
Yu
,
Y.
,
Yen
,
C.-H.
,
Shih
,
T. I.-P.
,
Chyu
,
M. K.
, and
Gogineni
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient Distributions Around Diffusion Shaped Holes
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
124
(
5
), pp.
820
827
.
25.
Wright
,
L. M.
,
McClain
,
S. T.
, and
Clemenson
,
M. D.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Density Ratio on Flat Plate Film Cooling With Shaped Holes Using PSP
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041011
.
26.
Eberly
,
M. K.
, and
Thole
,
K. A.
,
2013
, “
Time-Resolved Film-Cooling Flows at High and Low Density Ratios
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
136
(
6
), p.
061003
.
You do not currently have access to this content.