The capability of a linearized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for predicting turbine tone noise is investigated through comparison with measurements. To start with, a benchmark problem on flat plates is presented, and results are put together with those published by other authors. Then, numerical predictions are compared with measurements from two low-pressure turbines (LPTs), which have been tested in different facilities. The first specimen is a three-stage cold flow rig, noise tested in the Centro de Tecnologías Aeronáuticas (CTA) facility (Bilbao, Spain) in 2012 and funded by the Clean Sky EU Program. The second is the advanced near-term low emissions (ANTLE) LPT rig, full-scale, cold flow, noise tested in the twin shaft test facility (TSTF) in Rolls-Royce (Derby, UK) in 2005 and funded by the SILENCE(R) EU Funded Program. The comparison includes multistage effects, clocking sensitivities, and acoustic scattering through outlet guide vanes (OGVs).

References

References
1.
Nesbitt
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Towards a Quieter Low Pressure Turbine: Design Characteristics and Prediction Needs
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
1
15
.
2.
Envia
,
E.
,
Tweedt
,
D.
,
Woodward
,
R. P.
,
Elliot
,
D. M.
,
Fite
,
E. B.
,
Hughes
,
C. E.
,
Podboy
,
G. G.
, and
Sutli
,
D. L.
,
2008
, “
An Assessment of Current Fan Noise Prediction Capability
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2008-2991.
3.
Sharma
,
A.
,
Chen
,
H.
, and
Shieh
,
C. M.
,
2010
, “
Linearized Navier–Stokes Analysis for Rotor-Stator Interaction Tone Noise Prediction
,”
AIAA
Paper No. AIAA-2010-3744.
4.
Giacché
,
D.
,
Xu
,
L.
, and
Coupland
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-Objective Optimization of Bypass OGV for Low Interaction Noise
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2011-2949.
5.
Giacché
,
D.
,
Xu
,
L.
, and
Coupland
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Optimization of Bypass Outlet Guide Vane for Low Interaction Noise
,”
AIAA J.
,
52
(
6
), pp.
1145
1158
.
6.
Kennepohl
,
F.
,
Kahl
,
G.
, and
Heinig
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Turbine Blade/Vane Interaction Noise: Calculation With a 3D Time-Linearised Euler Method
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2001-2152.
7.
Escribano
,
A. G.
,
Serrano
,
A.
, and
de la Calzada
,
P.
,
2002
, “
Investigation on Numerical and Geometry Modelling Effects on the CFD Simulation of Interaction Noise in LP Turbines
,”
5th European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics
, Prague, Czech Republic.
8.
Broszat
,
D.
, and
Korte
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Validation of Turbine Tone Noise Prediction Tools With Acoustic Rig Measurements
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2009-3283.
9.
Pinelli
,
L.
,
Poli
,
F.
,
Di Grazia
,
E.
,
Arnone
,
A.
, and
Torzo
,
D.
,
2013
, “
A Comprehensive Numerical Study of Tone Noise Emissions in a Multistage Cold Flow Rig
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2013-2104.
10.
Van Zante
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Large-Scale Simulations for Turbine Engine Core Noise
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
75
88
.
11.
Fernández Aparicio
,
J. R.
,
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Vázquez
,
R.
,
2011
, “
On the Linearity of Turbomachinery Interaction Noise. Part I: 2D Analysis
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2011-2951.
12.
Fernández Aparicio
,
J. R.
,
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Vázquez
,
R.
,
2012
, “
On the Linearity of Turbomachinery Interaction Noise. Part II: 3D Analysis
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2012-2309.
13.
Pinelli
,
L.
,
Poli
,
F.
,
Arnone
,
A.
,
Guérin
,
S.
,
Pinelli
,
L.
,
Poli
,
F.
,
Arnone
,
A.
,
Guérin
,
S.
,
Holewa
,
A.
,
Fernández Aparicio
,
J. R.
,
Puente Rico
,
R.
,
Torzo
,
D.
,
Favre
,
C.
,
Gaetani
,
P.
, and
Bruno Persico
,
G.
,
2015
, “
On the Numerical Evaluation of Tone Noise Emissions Generated by a Turbine Stage: An In-Depth Comparison Among Different Computational Methods
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT-2015-42376.
14.
Corral
,
R.
,
Gallardo
,
J. M.
, and
Vasco
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Aeroelastic Stability of Welded-in-Pair Low Pressure Turbine Rotor Blades: A Comparative Study Using Linear Methods: A Comparative Study Using Linear Methods
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
129
(
1
), pp.
72
83
.
15.
Corral
,
R.
,
López
,
C.
, and
Vasco
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Linear Stability Analysis of LPT Rotor Packets—Part I: Methodology and Two-Dimensional Results
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT-2004-54119.
16.
Corral
,
R.
,
Gallardo
,
J. M.
, and
Vasco
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Linear Stability Analysis of LPT Rotor Packets—Part II: Three-Dimensional Results and Mistuning Effects
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT-2004-54120.
17.
Corral
,
R.
,
Escribano
,
A.
,
Gisbert
,
F.
,
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Vasco
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Validation of a Linear Multigrid Accelerated Unstructured Navier–Stokes Solver for the Computation of Turbine Blades on Hybrid Grids
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2003-3326.
18.
Escribano
,
A. G.
,
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Vasco
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Cascade-Gust Interaction Problem Analysis Based on Linear CFD Calculations
,”
4th AARC Workshop on CAA Benchmark Problems
, Paper No. NASA/CP-2004-212954.
19.
Vázquez
,
R.
,
Torre
,
D.
, and
Serrano
,
A.
,
2014
, “
The Effect of Airfoil Clocking on Efficiency and Noise of Low Pressure Turbines
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
136
(
6
), p. 061006.
20.
Corral
,
R.
,
Crespo
,
J.
, and
Gisbert
,
F.
,
2004
, “
Parallel Multigrid Unstructured Method for the Solution of the Navier–Stokes Equations
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2004-0761.
21.
Giles
,
M. B.
,
1990
, “
Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions for Euler Equation Calculations
,”
AIAA J.
,
28
(
12
), pp.
2050
2057
.
22.
Law
,
T. R.
,
Corral
,
R.
,
Fernández
,
J. R.
, and
Serrano
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Linear Viscous Eigenmode Analysis Within a Radially Varying Swirling Flow
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2010-3890.
23.
Namba
,
M.
, and
Schulten
,
J. B. H. M.
,
2000
, “
Numerical Results of Lifting Surface Theory, Cat. 4
,”
3rd AARC Workshop on CAA Benchmark Problems
, Paper No. NASA/CP-2000-209790.
24.
El Hadidi
,
B. N. M.
,
2003
, “
Sound Generation and Propagation in Annular Cascades With Swirling Flows
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
University of Notre Dame
,
Notre Dame, IN
.
25.
Wilson
,
A. G.
,
2001
, “
Application of CFD to Wake/Airfoil Interaction Noise—A Flat Plate Validation Case
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2001-2135.
26.
Tyler
,
J. M.
, and
Sofrin
,
T. G.
,
1962
, “
Axial Flow Compressor Noise Studies
,”
SAE Trans.
,
70
, pp.
309
332
.
27.
Vázquez
,
R.
,
Iturregui
,
J. J.
,
Arsuaga
,
M.
, and
Armañanzas
,
L.
,
2003
, “
A New Transonic Test Turbine Facility
,”
XVI International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (ISABE)
.
28.
Serrano
,
A.
,
Fernandez
,
J. R.
,
Vázquez
,
R.
, and
Moore
,
A. D.
,
2007
, “
Data Reduction Techniques for a Low Pressure Turbine Noise Test
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2007-3713.
29.
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Vázquez
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Feasibility of Using Single Mode Rings for the Characterization of Turbine Tone Noise
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2011-2911.
30.
Serrano
,
A.
, and
Fernández
,
J. R.
,
2015
, “
The Effect of Airfoil Clocking on Noise of LP Turbines. Part II: Modal Structure Analysis
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT-2015-25602.
31.
Baldwin
,
B. S.
, and
Lomax
,
H.
,
1978
, “
Thin Layer Approximation and Algebraic Model for Separated Flows
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 78-257.
32.
Gonzalez
,
P.
,
Ulizar
,
I.
,
Vazquez
,
R.
, and
Hodson
,
H. P.
,
2001
, “
Pressure and Suction Surfaces Redesign for High Lift Pressure Turbines
,”
ASME
Paper No. 2001-GT-439.
33.
Vázquez
,
R.
,
Cadrecha
,
D.
, and
Torre
,
D.
,
2003
, “
High Stage Loading Low Pressure Turbines: A New Proposal for an Efficiency Chart
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2003-38374.
34.
Serrano
,
A.
,
Fernandez
,
J. R.
, and
Vázquez
,
R.
,
2010
, “
On the Estimation and Relevance of Internally Generated Turbine Broadband Noise
,”
Int. J. Aeroacoust.
,
10
(
1
), pp.
51
74
.
You do not currently have access to this content.