The mechanisms and implementation scheme of discrete tip air injection are studied in this paper. A map that summarized the routes to stall is then proposed. It is argued that there exists a critical tip clearance ratio that separates two different routes to stall, which infers that the stability enhancement can also be based on two different mechanisms. A summation of tip injection test data in the literatures demonstrates that this is actually the case. For each compressor, there are two trends in the curve of stall margin improvement (SMI) versus injected momentum ratio, which is separated by a demarcation ratio of injected momentum. A series of tests are done in a low-speed compressor to show that the micro injection, wherein the injected momentum ratio is less than the demarcation ratio, can only act on the tip leakage flow (TLF) and thus provide small SMI by weakening the self-induced unsteadiness of the tip leakage flow (UTLF), while in contrast the macro injection can provide much larger SMI by acting on the main flow, decreasing the inlet angle-of-attack and thus unloading the blade tip. Based on these findings, a novel detecting-actuating scheme is designed and implemented onto a low-speed axial compressor. A cross-correlation coefficient is used to detect the UTLF in the prestall process way before stall inception and then to guide the opening of proportional electromagnetic valves. The injected flow rate can be smoothly varied to cover both micro- and macro-injection, which saves energy when the compressor is stable, and provides protection when it is needed. The same principle is applied to a high-speed compressor with a recirculation injection and the preliminary test results are very encouraging.

References

References
1.
Emmons
,
H. W.
,
Pearson
,
C. E.
, and
Grant
,
H. P.
,
1955
, “
Compressor Surge and Stall Propagation
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
77
(
4
), pp.
455
469
.
2.
Vo
,
H. D.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
2008
, “
Criteria for Spike Initiated Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
130
(
1
), p.
011023
.10.1115/1.2750674
3.
Tong
,
Z. T.
,
Lin
,
F.
,
Chen
,
J. Y.
, and
Nie
,
C. Q.
,
2007
, “
The Self-Induced Unsteady of Tip Leakage Vortex and Its Effect on Compressor Stall Inception
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2007-27010.10.1115/GT2007-27010
4.
Geng
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Zhao
,
L.
,
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Nie
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Evolution of Pressure Signature Dominated by Unsteady Tip Leakage Flow
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2013-94523.10.1115/GT2013-94523
5.
Du
,
J.
,
Lin
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
H. W.
, and
Chen
,
J. Y.
,
2010
, “
Numerical Investigation on the Self-Induced Unsteadiness in Tip Leakage Flow for a Transonic Fan Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
132
(2)
, p.
021017
.10.1115/1.3145103
6.
Hathaway
,
M. D.
,
2007
, “
Passive Endwall Treatment for Enhancing Stability
,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Paper No. NASA/TM-2007-214409.
7.
McGee
,
O. G.
, and
Coleman
,
K. L.
,
2013
, “
Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—Part I: Control-Theoretic Models
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
135
(3)
, p.
031101
.10.1115/1.4005822
8.
Coleman
,
K. L.
, and
McGee
,
O. G.
,
2013
, “
Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—PART II: Assessments of Methodology
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
135
(5)
, p.
051102
.10.1115/1.4006245
9.
Moore
,
F. K.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1986
, “
A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compressors—Part I: Development of the Equations
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
108
(1)
, pp.
68
76
.10.1115/1.3239887
10.
Epstein
,
A. H.
,
Ffowcs Williams
,
J. E.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1986
, “
Active Suppression of Aerodynamic Instabilities in Turbomachines
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 86-1994.10.2514/6.1986-1994
11.
Paduano
,
J. D.
,
Epstein
,
A. H.
,
Valavani
,
L.
,
Longley
,
J. P.
,
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Guenette
,
G. R.
,
1993
, “
Active Control of Rotating Stall in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
115
(
1
), pp.
48
56
.10.1115/1.2929217
12.
Weigl
,
H. J.
,
Paduano
,
J. D.
,
Frechette
,
L. G.
,
Epstein
,
A. H.
,
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
Bright
,
M. M.
, and
Strazisar
,
A. J.
,
1998
, “
Active Stabilization of Rotating Stall and Surge in a Transonic Single Stage Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
120
(
4
), pp.
625
636
.10.1115/1.2841772
13.
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
Weigl
,
H. J.
,
Paduano
,
J. D.
,
van Schalkwyk
,
C. M.
,
Suder
,
K. L.
, and
Bright
,
M. M.
,
1999
, “
Rotating Stall Control in a High-Speed Stage With Inlet Distortion: Part I—Radial Distortion
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
121
(
3
), pp.
510
516
.10.1115/1.2841345
14.
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
van Schalkwyk
,
C. M.
,
Weigl
,
H. J.
,
Paduano
,
J. D.
,
Suder
,
K. L.
, and
Bright
,
M. M.
,
1999
, “
Rotating Stall Control in a High Speed Stage With Inlet Distortion—Part II: Circumferential Distortion
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
121
(
3
), pp.
517
524
.10.1115/1.2841346
15.
Day
,
I. J.
,
1993
, “
Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
115
(1)
, pp.
40
47
.10.1115/1.2929216
16.
Suder
,
K. L.
,
Hathaway
,
M. D.
,
Thorp
,
S. A.
,
Strazisar
,
A. J.
, and
Bright
,
M. B.
,
2001
, “
Compressor Stability Enhancement Using Discrete Tip Injection
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
123
(
1
), pp.
14
23
.10.1115/1.1330272
17.
Kefalakis
,
M.
, and
Papailiou
,
K. D.
,
2001
, “
Detailed Measurement on an Axial Compressor Stage With Application of Discrete Tip Injection for Increasing the Surge Margin
,” ECT Paper No. 2001-044.
18.
Nie
,
C.
,
Xu
,
G.
,
Cheng
,
X.
, and
Chen
,
J.
,
2002
, “
Micro Air Injection and Its Unsteady Response in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
124
(
4
), pp.
572
579
.10.1115/1.1508383
19.
Tong
,
Z.
,
Li
,
L.
,
Nie
,
C.
,
Lin
,
B.
,
Cui
,
Y.
, and
Qi
,
W.
,
2009
, “
Online Stall Control With the Digital Signal Processing Method in an Axial Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2009-59509.10.1115/GT2009-59509
20.
Lin
,
F.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Nie
,
C.
, and
Zhang
,
H.
,
2009
, “
Unsteady Tip Leakage Flow and Perspectives to Stall Mechanism in Axial Compressors
,” 2nd Asian Congress on Gas Turbines (ACGT2009), Tokyo, Aug. 24–26, keynote speech.
21.
Xiangyang
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Numerical Investigation on Tip Clearance Flow in Compressor
,” Ph.D. thesis, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (in Chinese).
22.
Lin
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
J. X.
,
Chen
,
J. Y.
, and
Nie
,
C. Q.
,
2008
, “
Flow Structure of Short Length Scale Disturbance on an Axial Compressor
,”
AIAA J. Propul. Power
,
24
(
6
), pp.
1301
1308
.10.2514/1.36525
23.
Lin
,
F.
,
Tong
,
Z.
,
Geng
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Nie
,
C.
,
2011
, “
A Summary of Stall Warning and Suppression Research With Micro Tip Injection
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2011-46118.10.1115/GT2011-46118
24.
Tahara
,
N.
,
Nakajima
,
T.
,
Kurosaki
,
M.
,
Ohta
,
Y.
,
Outa
,
E.
, and
Nishikawa
,
T.
,
2001
, “
Active Stall Control With Practicable Stall Prediction System Using Auto-Correlation
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2001-3623.10.2514/6.2001-3623
25.
Tahara
,
N.
,
Kurosaki
,
M.
,
Ohta
,
Y.
,
Outa
,
E.
,
Nakakita
,
T.
, and
Tsurumi
,
Y.
,
2004
, “
Early Stall Warning Technique for Axial Flow Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2004-53292.10.1115/GT2004-53292
26.
Dhingra
,
M.
,
Neumeier
,
Y.
,
Prasad
,
J. V. R.
,
Breeze-Stringfellow
,
A.
,
Shin
,
H.-W.
, and
Szucs
,
P. N.
,
2006
, “
A Stochastic Model for a Compressor Stability Measure
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2006-91182.10.1115/GT2006-91182
27.
Christensen
,
D.
,
Cantin
,
P.
,
Gutz
,
D.
,
Szucs
,
P. N.
,
Wadia
,
A. R.
,
Armor
,
J.
,
Dhingra
,
M.
,
Neumeier
,
Y.
, and
Prasad
,
J. V. R.
,
2006
, “
Development and Demonstration of a Stability Management System for Gas Turbine Engines
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2006-90324.10.1115/GT2006-90324
28.
Hathaway
,
M. D.
,
2002
, “
Self-Recirculating Casing Treatment Concept for Enhance Compressor Performance
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2002-30368.10.1115/GT2002-30368
29.
Strazisar
,
A. J.
,
Bright
,
M. M.
,
Thorp
,
S.
,
Culley
,
D. E.
, and
Suder
,
K. L.
,
2004
, “
Compressor Stall Control Through Endwall Recirculation
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2004-54295.10.1115/GT2004-54295
30.
Weichert
,
S.
,
Day
,
I.
, and
Freeman
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Self-Regulation Casing Treatment for Axial Compressor Stability Enhancement
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2011-46042.10.1115/GT2011-46042
31.
Zhang
,
J.
,
Li
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Huang
,
W.
,
2011
, “
A Study of the Unsteady Tip Flow Field of a Transonic Compressor
,”
J. Therm. Sci.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
1
5
.10.1007/s11630-011-0426-0
You do not currently have access to this content.