The use of boundary-layer-ingesting, embedded propulsion systems can result in inlet flow distortions where the interaction of the boundary-layer vorticity and the inlet lip causes horseshoe vortex formation and the ingestion of streamwise vortices into the inlet. A previously-developed body-force-based fan modeling approach was used to assess the change in fan rotor shock noise generation and propagation in a boundary-layer-ingesting, serpentine inlet. This approach is employed here in a parametric study to assess the effects of inlet geometry parameters (offset-to-diameter ratio and downstream-to-upstream area ratio) on flow distortion and rotor shock noise. Mechanisms related to the vortical inlet structures were found to govern changes in the rotor shock noise generation and propagation. The vortex whose circulation is in the opposite direction to the fan rotation (counter-swirling vortex) increases incidence angles on the fan blades near the tip, enhancing noise generation. The vortex with circulation in the direction of fan rotation (co-swirling vortex) creates a region of subsonic relative flow near the blade tip radius that decreases the sound power propagated to the far-field. The parametric study revealed that the overall sound power level at the fan leading edge is set by the ingested streamwise circulation, and that for inlet designs in which the streamwise vortices are displaced away from the duct wall, the sound power at the upstream inlet plane increased by as much as 9 dB. By comparing the far-field noise results obtained to those for a conventional inlet, it is deduced that the changes in rotor shock noise are predominantly due to the ingestion of streamwise vorticity.
Effects of Boundary-Layer Ingestion on the Aero-Acoustics of Transonic Fan Rotors
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received July 15, 2012; final manuscript received November 2, 2012; published online June 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.
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Defoe, J. J., and Spakovszky, Z. S. (June 26, 2013). "Effects of Boundary-Layer Ingestion on the Aero-Acoustics of Transonic Fan Rotors." ASME. J. Turbomach. September 2013; 135(5): 051013. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4023461
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