Centrifugal compressors used for turbochargers are required to have a wide operating range. A recirculation device, which consists of a bleed slot, an upstream slot, and an annular cavity connecting both slots, is often used with them. It improves the incidence angle of the impeller leading edge, i.e., the blade loading of the inducer, at low flow rates due to the recirculation flow supplied to the compressor inlet. However, the compressor efficiency drops when there is a recirculation flow from the bleed slot to the upstream slot. A one dimensional analysis in the first section of this paper showed that the reduction in the compressor efficiency can be lowered by decreasing the pressure drop or reducing the recirculation flow rate within the recirculation device. This study examined the possibility of improvement in the compressor efficiency by the use of a recirculation device with an asymmetric bleed slot. An impeller of a turbocharger compressor is normally contained in a volute. Since the geometry of the volute is not axisymmetric, the impeller is surrounded by an asymmetric flow field. Hence each impeller passage, which is formed by two adjacent full blades, is operated at a different operating point. This means that some of the passages need the improvement in the blade loading by the recirculation device but others do not. There is a possibility that this is realized by a recirculation device with an asymmetrically distributed bleed slot, called a nonaxisymmetric recirculation device in this paper. If the asymmetric bleed slot shortens the average distance between the bleed slot and upstream slot or reduces the area of the bleed slot, it can reduce the pressure drop or recirculation flow rate within the recirculation deviceand, hence, can improve the compressor efficiency. This study discusses the characteristics of high pressure ratio compressors for turbochargers without the recirculation device and those with the recirculation device with an axisymmetric bleed slot. Furthermore, the effects of nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices on the compressor characteristics are experimentally investigated. Two types of nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices were tested. One had the bleed slot of a sine wave pattern. The other had the bleed slot partially channeled in the circumferential direction. There were appropriate positions relative to the volute for both nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices. The compressor efficiency with nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices was higher than that with axisymmetric recirculation devices and the surge lines of the compressor with nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices were located at a flow rate lower than or equal to those with the axisymmetric recirculation devices.
Experimental Investigation of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor With Axisymmetric and Nonaxisymmetric Recirculation Device
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 1, 2012; final manuscript received August 24, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.
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Tamaki, H., Zheng, X., and Zhang, Y. (March 25, 2013). "Experimental Investigation of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor With Axisymmetric and Nonaxisymmetric Recirculation Device." ASME. J. Turbomach. May 2013; 135(3): 031023. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4007579
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