The effects of jet flow-rate modulation were investigated in the case of a 35 deg inclined jet in cross-flow over a flat plate using Mie scattering visualizations, time-resolved flow rate records, and large eddy simulations (LES). In forced experiments, average blowing ratios of 0.3 and 0.4 were investigated with a duty cycle of 50% and pulsing frequencies of St = 0.016 and 0.159. Time-resolved flow rate measurements during the experiments provided precise knowledge of the instantaneous jet blowing ratio and adequate inlet boundary conditions for large eddy simulations. The dynamics of the vortical structures generated during the transient parts of the forcing cycle as well as their impact on film cooling performance were investigated with respect of the forcing parameters. At the considered blowing ratios, a starting ring vortex was consistently generated at the transition from low to high blowing ratio. Ingestion of cross-flow fluid at the transition from high to low blowing ratio was also observed and had a negative impact on film cooling performance. All studied cases exhibited an overall decrease in coverage regardless of pulsing parameters over their corresponding steady jet cases at fixed mass flow rate. Comparisons between pulsed and steady jets at constant pressure supply (same high blowing ratio) did exhibit some film-cooling improvement with pulsing. 3D Proper orthogonal decomposition was performed on LES results at distinct forcing frequencies to provide an analysis of dominant modes in the velocity and temperature fields. Significantly different results were obtained depending on the forcing frequency.
Study of Unforced and Modulated Film-Cooling Jets Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition—Part II: Forced Jets
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journalof Turbomachinery. Manuscript received October 6, 2011; final manuscript received October 29, 2011; published online November 1, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.
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Bidan, G., Vézier, C., and Nikitopoulos, D. E. (November 1, 2012). "Study of Unforced and Modulated Film-Cooling Jets Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition—Part II: Forced Jets." ASME. J. Turbomach. March 2013; 135(2): 021038. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4006600
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