The viscous work generated by the rotating components of a seal not only represents a direct loss of power but also causes an increase in the total temperature of fluid (windage effect). In order to study the discharge and total temperature increase characteristics of the stepped labyrinth seals with smooth and honeycomb lands, 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solutions from CFX is used in this work. At first, the influences of the inlet preswirl, leakage flow rate, and rotational speed on the total temperature increase in the convergent and divergent stepped labyrinth seals with smooth and honeycomb lands are conducted. The obtained 3D numerical results are well in agreement with the referenced experimental data. It shows that the utilized numerical approach has sufficient precision to predict the total temperature increase in seals. Then, a range of pressure ratios and four sizes of sealing clearance are performed to investigate the effects of sealing clearances and pressure ratio impact on the discharge and total temperature increase of the stepped labyrinth seals with honeycomb and smooth liners.

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