The ability to predict boundary layer transition locations accurately on turbomachinery airfoils is critical both to evaluate aerodynamic performance and to predict local heat-transfer coefficients with accuracy. Here we report on an effort to include empirical transition models developed in Part I of this report in a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. To validate the new models, two-dimensional design optimizations utilizing transitional RANS simulations were performed to obtain a pair of low-pressure turbine airfoils with the objective of increasing airfoil loading by 25%. Subsequent experimental testing of the two new airfoils confirmed pre-test predictions of both high and low Reynolds number loss levels. In addition, the accuracy of the new transition modeling capability was benchmarked with a number of legacy cascade and low-pressure turbine (LPT) rig data sets. Good agreement between measured and predicted profile losses was found in both cascade and rig environments. However, use of the transition modeling capability has elucidated deficiencies in typical RANS simulations that are conducted to predict component performance. Efficiency-versus-span comparisons between rig data and multi-stage steady and time-accurate LPT simulations indicate that loss levels in the end wall regions are significantly under predicted. Possible causes for the under-predicted end wall losses are discussed as well as suggestions for future improvements that would make RANS-based transitional simulations more accurate.
Predicting Transition in Turbomachinery—Part II: Model Validation and Benchmarking
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Praisner, T. J., Grover, E. A., Rice, M. J., and Clark, J. P. (March 1, 2004). "Predicting Transition in Turbomachinery—Part II: Model Validation and Benchmarking." ASME. J. Turbomach. January 2007; 129(1): 14–22. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2366528
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