This paper presents a first principles-based model of the fluid-induced forces acting on the rotor of an axial compressor. These forces are primarily associated with the presence of a nonuniform flow field around the rotor, such as that produced by a rotor tip clearance asymmetry. Simple, analytical expressions for the forces as functions of basic flow field quantities are obtained. These expressions allow an intuitive understanding of the nature of the forces and—when combined with a rudimentary model of an axial compressor flow field (the Moore-Greitzer model)—enable computation of the forces as a function of compressor geometry, torque and pressure-rise characteristics, and operating point. The forces predicted by the model are also compared to recently published measurements and more complex analytical models, and are found to be in reasonable agreement. The model elucidates that the fluid-induced forces comprise three main contributions: fluid turning in the rotor blades, pressure distribution around the rotor, and unsteady momentum storage within the rotor. The model also confirms recent efforts in that the orientation of fluid-induced forces is locked to the flow nonuniformity, not to tip clearance asymmetry as is traditionally assumed. The turning and pressure force contributions are shown to be of comparable magnitudes—and therefore of equal importance—for operating points between the design point and the peak of the compressor characteristic. Within this operating range, both “forward” and “backward” rotor whirl tendencies are shown to be possible. This work extends recent efforts by developing a more complete, yet compact, description of fluid-induced forces in that it accounts for all relevant force contributions, both tangential and radial, that may influence the dynamics of the rotor. Hence it constitutes an essential element of a consistent treatment of rotordynamic stability under the action of fluid-induced forces, which is the subject of Part II of this paper.
Aerodynamic-Rotordynamic Interaction in Axial Compression Systems—Part I: Modeling and Analysis of Fluid-Induced Forces
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute and presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 3–6, 2002. Manuscript received by the IGTI November 30, 2001. Paper No. 2002-GT-30488. Review Chair: E. Benvenuti.
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Al-Nahwi, A. A., Paduano, J. D., and Nayfeh, S. A. (August 27, 2003). "Aerodynamic-Rotordynamic Interaction in Axial Compression Systems—Part I: Modeling and Analysis of Fluid-Induced Forces ." ASME. J. Turbomach. July 2003; 125(3): 405–415. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1576430
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