This paper discusses large-scale, low-speed experiments that explain unexpected flow-interaction phenomena witnessed during annular cascade studies into the influence of external crossflow on film cooling hole discharge coefficients. More specifically, the experiments throw light on the crossover phenomenon, where the presence of the external crossflow can, under certain circumstances, increase the discharge coefficient. This is contrary to most situations, where the external flow results in a decrease in discharge coefficient. The large-scale testing reported helps to explain this phenomenon through an increased understanding of the interaction between the emerging coolant jet and the free-stream flow. The crossover phenomenon came to light during an investigation into the influence of external crossflow on the discharge coefficients of nozzle guide vane film cooling holes. These experiments were performed in the Cold Heat Transfer Tunnel (CHTT), an annular blowdown cascade of film cooled vanes that models the three-dimensional external flow patterns found in modern aero-engines. (Rowbury et al., 1997, 1998). The variation in static pressure around the exit of film cooling holes under different flow conditions was investigated in the large-scale tests. The study centered on three holes whose geometries were based on those found in the leading edge region of the CHTT vanes, as the crossover phenomenon was witnessed for these rows during the initial testing. The experiments were carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel, with the tunnel free-stream flow velocity set to match the free-stream Reynolds number (based on the local radius of curvature) and the “coolant” flow velocity set to replicate the engine coolant-to-free-stream momentum flux ratio. It was found that the apparent enhancement of film cooling hole discharge coefficients with external crossflow was caused by a reduction in the static pressure around the hole exit, associated with the local acceleration of the free-stream around the emerging coolant jet. When these measured static pressures (rather than the free-stream static pressure) were used to calculate the discharge coefficient, the crossover effect was absent. The improved understanding of the crossover phenomenon and coolant-to-free-stream interactions that has been gained will be valuable in aiding the formulation of predictive discharge coefficient schemes.
Large-Scale Testing to Validate the Influence of External Crossflow on the Discharge Coefficients of Film Cooling Holes
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute and presented at the 45th International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Munich, Germany, May 8–11, 2000. Manuscript received by the International Gas Turbine Institute February 2000. Paper No. 2000-GT-293. Review Chair: D. Ballal.
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Rowbury, D. A., Oldfield, M. L. G., and Lock, G. D. (February 1, 2000). "Large-Scale Testing to Validate the Influence of External Crossflow on the Discharge Coefficients of Film Cooling Holes ." ASME. J. Turbomach. July 2001; 123(3): 593–600. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1375171
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