During the last few decades extremely powerful Quasi-three-dimensional (3D) codes and fully 3D Navier-Stokes solvers have been developed and successfully utilized in the design process and optimization of multistage axial-flow compressors. However, most of these methods proved to be difficult in handling and extremely time consuming. Due to these disadvantages, the primary stage design and stage matching as well as the off-design analysis is nowadays still based on fast 2D methods incorporating loss-, deviation- and end wall modeling. Only the detailed 3D optimization is normally performed by means of advanced 3D methods. In this paper a fast and efficient 2D calculation method is presented, which already in the initial design phase of multistage axial flow compressors, considers the influence of hub leakage flows, tip clearance effects, and other end wall flow phenomena. The method is generally based on the fundamental approach by Howard and Gallimore (1992). In order to allow a more accurate prediction of skewed and nondeveloped boundary layers in turbomachines, an improved theoretical approach was implemented. Particularly the splitting of the boundary layers into an axial and tangential component proved to be necessary in order to account for the change between rotating and stationary end walls. Additionally, a new approach is used for the prediction of the viscous end wall zones including hub leakage effects and strongly skewed boundary layers. As a result, empirical correlations for secondary flow effects are no longer required. The results of the improved method are compared with conventional 2D results including 3D loss- and deviation-models, with experimental data of a three-stage research compressor of the Institute for Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery of the Technical University of Aachen and with 3D Navier-Stokes solutions of the V84.3A compressor and of a multistage Siemens research compressor. The results obtained using the new method show a remarkable improvement in comparison with conventional 2D methods. Due to the high quality and the extremely short computation time, the new method allows an overall viscous design of multistage compressors for heavy duty gas turbines and aeroengine applications.
Viscous-Flow Two-Dimensional Analysis Including Secondary Flow Effects
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute and presented at the 45th International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Munich, Germany, May 8–11, 2000. Manuscript received by the International Gas Turbine Institute February 2000. Paper No. 2000-GT-628. Review Chair: D. Ballal.
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Mo¨nig , R., Mildner, F., and Ro¨per, R. (February 1, 2000). "Viscous-Flow Two-Dimensional Analysis Including Secondary Flow Effects ." ASME. J. Turbomach. July 2001; 123(3): 558–567. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1370167
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