A phenomenological model is presented that relates free-stream turbulence to the augmentation of stagnation-point surface flux quantities. The model requires the turbulence intensity, the longitudinal scale of the turbulence, and the energy spectra as inputs for the unsteady velocity at the edge of the near-wall viscous region. The form of the edge velocity contains both pulsations of the incoming flow and oscillations of the streamline. Incompressible results using a single fluctuating component are presented within the stagnation region of a two-dimensional cylinder. The time-averaged Froessling number is determined from the computations. These predictions are compared to existing incompressible experimental data. Additionally, the variations in the surface flux quantities with the longitudinal scale of the incoming free-stream turbulence, the Reynolds number, and the free-stream turbulence intensity are considered.

1.
Ames, F. E., and Moffat, R. J., 1990, “Heat Transfer With High Intensity, Large Scale Turbulence: The Flat Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer and the Cylindrical Stagnation Point,” Report HMT-44, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
2.
Appelqvist, J. D., II, 1965, “The Influence of Turbulence on the Local Heat Transfer From a Cylinder Normal to an Air Stream, Including Further Development of a Method for Local Heat Transfer Measurements,” Doctoral Dissertation, Institute of Applied Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
3.
Bogucz, E. A., Dirik, E. A., and Lyman, F. A., 1988, “Unsteady Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer Due to the Motion of Freestream Vortices,” AIAA/ASME/SIAM/APS First National Fluid Dynamics Congress, Vol. 3, AIAA, Washington, DC, pp. 1893–1900.
4.
Britter
R. E.
,
Hunt
J. C. R.
, and
Mumford
J. C.
,
1979
, “
The Distortion of Turbulence by a Circular Cylinder
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
92
, pp.
269
301
.
5.
Brun
E. A.
,
Diep
, and
Kestin
J.
,
1966
, “
Sur un nouveau type des tourbillons longitudinaux dans l’ecoulement autour d’un cylindre. Influence de l’angle d’attaqiu et de la turbulence du courant libre
,”
Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Paris
, Series A, Vol.
263
, pp.
742
745
[in French].
6.
Cebeci, T., Krainer, A., Simoneau, R. J., and Platzer, M. F., 1987, “A General Method for Unsteady Stagnation Region Heat Transfer and Results for Model Turbine Flows,” Proc. 1987 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, Honolulu, HI, Vol. 2, ASME, pp. 541–646.
7.
Driver
D. M.
,
Seegmiller
H. L.
, and
Marvin
J. G.
,
1987
, “
Time-Dependent Behavior of a Reattaching Shear Layer
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
25
, pp.
914
919
.
8.
Dullenkopf
K.
, and
Mayle
R. E.
,
1994
, “
The Effects of Incident Turbulence and Moving Wakes on Laminar Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
23
28
.
9.
Dullenkopf
K.
, and
Mayle
R. E.
,
1995
, “
An Account of Free-Stream-Turbulence Length Scale on Laminar Heat Transfer
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
117
, pp.
401
406
.
10.
Dyban, E. P., Epick, E. YA., and Kozlova, L. G., 1974, “Combined Influence of Turbulence Intensity and Longitudinal Scale and Air Flow Acceleration on Heat Transfer of Circular Cylinder,” FC8.4, Heat Transfer 1974: Proc. Fifth International Heat Transfer Conference, Tokyo, Japan 1974, Vol. 2, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, pp. 310–314.
11.
Giedt
W. H.
,
1951
, “
Effect of Turbulence Level of Incident Air Stream on Local Heat Transfer and Skin Friction on a Cylinder
,”
Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences
, Vol.
18
, pp.
725
730
.
12.
Hanford, A. J., 1994, “The Augmentation of Stagnation Point Heat Transfer by Quasi-Periodic Freestream Fluctuations,” Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
13.
Hanford
A. J.
, and
Wilson
D. E.
,
1994
, “
The Effect of a Turbulent Wake on the Stagnation Point: Part II—Heat Transfer Results
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
46
54
.
14.
Hijikata, K., Yoshida, H., and Mori, Y., 1982, “Theoretical and Experimental Study of Turbulence Effects on Heat Transfer Around the Stagnation Point of a Cylinder,” FC30, Heat Transfer for 1982, Proceedings of the Seventh International Heat Transfer Conference, Munich, West Germany 1982, Vol. 3, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, pp. 165–170.
15.
Hinze, J. O., 1975, Turbulence, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
16.
Hoshizaki, H., Chou, Y. S., Kulgein, N. G., and Meyer, J. W., 1975, “Critical Review of Stagnation Point Heat Transfer Theory,” Technical Report AFFDL-TR-75-85, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH, pp. 1–100.
17.
Hunt
J. C. R.
,
1973
, “
A Theory of Turbulent Flow Round Two-Dimensional Bluff Bodies
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
61
, pp.
625
706
.
18.
Ishigaki
H.
,
1970
, “
Periodic Boundary Layer Near a Two-Dimensional Stagnation Point
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
43
, pp.
477
486
.
19.
Kayalar
L.
,
1969
, “
Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen uber den Einfluß des Turbulenzgrades auf den Warmeubergang in der Umgebung des Staupunktes eines Kreiszylinders
,”
Forschung auf dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens
, Vol.
35
, pp.
157
167
[in German].
20.
Kestin
J.
,
Maeder
P. F.
, and
Sogin
H. H.
,
1961
, “
The Influence of Turbulence on the Transfer of Heat to Cylinders Near the Stagnation Point
,”
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathmatik und Physik
, Vol.
12
, pp.
115
132
.
21.
Kestin
J.
, and
Wood
R. T.
,
1971
, “
The Influence of Turbulence on Mass Transfer From Cylinders
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
93
, pp.
321
327
.
22.
Kwon, O. K., Turner, E. R., and Kou, Y. M., 1983, “Prediction of Stagnation Flow Heat Transfer on Turbomachinery Airfoils,” AIAA Paper No. 83-1173.
23.
Lighthill
M. J.
,
1954
, “
The Response of Laminar Skin Friction and Heat Transfer to Fluctuations in the Stream Velocity
,”
Proc. Royal Society of London
, Vol.
224
, pp.
1
23
.
24.
Lin, C. C., 1957, “Motion in the Boundary Layer With a Rapidly Oscillating External Flow,” Proc. Ninth International Congress on Applied Mechanics, Vol. 4, pp. 155–167.
25.
Lowery
G. W.
, and
Vachon
R. I.
,
1975
, “
The Effect of Turbulence on Heat Transfer From Heated Cylinders
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
18
, pp.
1229
1224
.
26.
Paxson
D. E.
, and
Mayle
R. E.
,
1991
, “
Laminar Boundary Layer Interaction With an Unsteady Passing Wake
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
113
, pp.
419
427
.
27.
Seban
R. A.
,
1960
, “
The Influence of Free Stream Turbulence on the Local Heat Transfer From Cylinders
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
82
, pp.
101
107
.
28.
Sikmanovic, S., Oka, S., and Koncar-Djurdjevic, S., 1974, “Influence of the Structure of Turbulent Flow on Heat Transfer From a Single Cylinder in a Cross Flow,” FC8.6, Heat Transfer 1974: Proc. Fifth International Heat Transfer Conference, Tokyo, Japan 1974, Vol. 2, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, pp. 320–324.
29.
Smith
M. C.
, and
Kuethe
A. M.
,
1966
, “
Effects of Turbulence on Laminar Skin Friction and Heat Transfer
,”
The Physics of Fluids
, Vol.
9
, pp.
2337
2344
.
30.
Sogin
H. H.
, and
Subramanian
V. S.
,
1961
, “
Local Mass Transfer From Circular Cylinders in Cross Flow
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
83
, pp.
483
493
.
31.
Taulbee
D. B.
, and
Tran
L.
,
1988
, “
Stagnation Streamline Turbulence
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
26
, pp.
1011
1013
.
32.
Van Dresar, N. T., and Mayle, R. E., 1988, “Stagnation Transfer Rates for Incident Flow With High Turbulence Intensities,” ASME Symposium on Fundamentals of Forced Convection Heat Transfer, HTD-Vol. 101, pp. 165–172.
33.
Yardi, N. R., and Sukhatme, S. P., 1978, “Effects of Turbulence Intensity and Integral Length Scale of a Turbulent Free Stream on Forced Convection Heat Transfer From a Circular Cylinder in Crossflow,” FC(b)-29, Proc. Sixth International Heat Transfer Conference, Toronto, Canada 1978, Hemisphere Publishing Company, Inc., Washington, DC, pp. 347–352.
34.
Zapp, G. M., 1950, “The Effect of Turbulence on Local Heat Transfer Coefficients Around a Cylinder Normal to an Air Stream,” M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.