The local Mach number and heat transfer coefficient over the aerofoil surfaces and endwalls of a transonic gas turbine nozzle guide vane have been calculated. The computations were performed by solving the time-averaged Navier–Stokes equations using a fully three-dimensional computational code (CFDS), which is well established at Rolls-Royce. A model to predict the effects of roughness has been incorporated into CFDS and heat transfer levels have been calculated for both hydraulically smooth and transitionally rough surfaces. The roughness influences the calculations in two ways; first the mixing length at a certain height above the surface is increased; second the wall function used to reconcile the wall condition with the first grid point above the wall is also altered. The first involves a relatively straightforward shift of the origin in the van Driest damping function description, the second requires an integration of the momentum equation across the wall layer. A similar treatment applies to the energy equation. The calculations are compared with experimental contours of heat transfer coefficient obtained using both thin-film gages and the transient liquid crystal technique. Measurements were performed using both hydraulically smooth and roughened surfaces, and at engine-representative Mach and Reynolds numbers. The heat transfer results are discussed and interpreted in terms of surface-shear flow visualization using oil and dye techniques.

1.
Blair
M. F.
,
1994
, “
An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in a Large-Scale Turbine Rotor Passage
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
1
13
.
2.
Boyle
R. J.
,
1994
, “
Prediction of Surface Roughness and Incidence Effects on Turbine Performance
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
745
751
.
3.
Cebeci, T., and Bradshaw, P., 1977, Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers, Hemisphere, Washington, DC.
4.
Cebeci
T.
, and
Chang
K. C.
,
1978
, “
Calculation of Incompressible Rough-Wall Boundary Layer Flows
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
16
, No.
7
, pp.
730
735
.
5.
Chew, J. W., Taylor, I. J., and Bonsell, J. J., 1996, “CFD Developments for Turbine Blade Heat Transfer,” presented at the 3rd Int. Conf. Computers in Reciprocating Engines and Gas Turbines, I. Mech. E., London, UK.
6.
Coupland, J., 1995, private communication, Rolls-Royce, Derby, England.
7.
Dunn
M. G.
,
Kim
J.
,
Civinskas
K. C.
, and
Boyle
R. J.
,
1994
, “
Time Averaged Heat Transfer and Pressure Measurements, and Comparison With Prediction for a Two-Stage Turbine
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
14
22
.
8.
Guo, S. M., Spencer, M. C., Lock, G. D., Jones, T. V., and Harvey, N. W., 1995, “The Application of Thin Film Gauges on Flexible Plastic Substrates to the Gas Turbine Situation,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-357.
9.
Johnson, P. L., and Johnson, J. P., 1989, Proc. Seventh Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, Stanford University, 21–23 Aug., pp. 20.2.1–20.2.6.
10.
Jones, T. V., 1995, “The Thin Film Gauge—A History and New Developments,” Invited Lecture, 4th National UK Heat Transfer Conference, IMechE Conference Trans. Manchester, pp. 1–12.
11.
Kays, W. M., and Crawford, M. E., 1993, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.
12.
Martinez-Botas, R. F., Main, A. J., Lock, G. D., and Jones, T. V., 1993, “A Cold Heat Transfer Tunnel for Gas Turbine Research on an Annular Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 93–GT–248.
13.
Martinez-Botas, R. F., 1993, “Annular Cascade Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer,” DPhil Thesis, Oxford University, United Kingdom.
14.
Martinez-Botas
R. F.
,
Lock
G. D.
, and
Jones
T. V.
,
1995
, “
Heat Transfer Measurements in an Annular Cascade of Transonic Gas Turbine Blades Using the Transient Liquid Crystal Technique
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
117
, pp.
425
431
(also ASME Paper No. 94–GT–172).
15.
Moore, J. G., 1985, “Calculation of 3-D Flow Without Numerical Mixing,” AGARD Lecture Series 140 on 3-D Computational Techniques Applied to Internal Flows in Propulsion Systems.
16.
Nikuradse, J., 1933, Forsch. Arb. Ing.-Wes., No. 361.
17.
Northall, J. D., Moore, J. G., and Moore, J., 1987, “Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow Calculation for Loss Predictions in Turbine Blade Rows,” Proc. IMechE Conference on Turbomachinery—Efficiency Prediction and Improvement.
18.
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington, DC.
19.
Schlichting, H., 1979, Boundary Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.
20.
Spencer
M. C.
,
Lock
G. D.
, and
Jones
T. V.
,
1996
, “
Endwall Heat Transfer Measurements in an Annular Cascade of Nozzle Guide Vanes at Engine Representative Reynolds and Mach Numbers
,”
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
, Vol.
17
(
2
), pp.
139
147
.
21.
Spencer, M. C., Lock, G. D., Jones, T. V., and Harvey, N. W., 1995, “Endwall Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in an Annular Cascade of Nozzle Guide Vanes,” ASME Paper No. 95–GT–356.
22.
Tabakoff
W.
,
1984
, “
Review—Turbomachinery Performance Deterioration Exposed to Solid Particulates Environment
,”
ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering
, Vol.
106
, pp.
125
134
.
23.
Turner, A. B., Tarada, F. H. A., and Bailey, F. J., 1985, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Heat Transfer to Gas Turbine Blades,” AGARD-CP-390.
24.
van Driest
E. R.
,
1956
, “
On the Turbulent Flow Near a Wall
,”
Journal of Aeronautical Science
, Vol.
23
, pp.
1007
1011
.
25.
Watt, R. M., Jones, T. V., Allen, J. L., Baines, N. C., and George, M., 1990, “A Further Study of the Effects of Thermal-Barrier-Coating Surface Roughness on Gas Turbine Boundary Layers,” presented at the ASME Turbo Cogen Conf., Nice.
26.
Wang, Z., Ireland, P. T., and Jones, T. V., 1990, “Convective Heat Transfer Measurements at Grain Roughened Surface,” Inverse Problems in Engineering, J. V. Beck, ed., University of Michigan.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.