Published information on the discharge coefficient of film cooling holes is classified in terms of the hole geometry, the external flow conditions at inlet and outlet, and the method of evaluation. This may be either theoretical or experimental. The information is reviewed primarily in the context of its use for evaluating discharge coefficients for conditions not directly covered by published data. It is shown that potential flow analyses can give acceptable accuracy for simple geometries with crossflows, while more complex cases require the use of correlated data, which may be incorporated in a range of predictive schemes. Deficiencies and inconsistencies in the published information are highlighted, and future developments are discussed.

1.
Adkins
R. C.
, and
Gueroui
D.
,
1986
, “
An Improved Method for Accurate Prediction of Mass Flow Through Combustion Liner Holes
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
108
, pp.
491
497
.
2.
Andrews
G. E.
, and
Mkpadi
M. C.
,
1984
, “
Full Coverage Discrete Hole Wall Cooling: Discharge Coefficients
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
106
, pp.
183
192
.
3.
Arts, T., and Lapidus, I., 1993, “Thermal Effects of a Coolant Film Along the Suction Side of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane,” AGARD Conference Proceedings 572, pp. 3–1 to 3–8.
4.
Arts
T.
, and
Bourgignon
A. E.
,
1990
, “
Behaviour of a Coolant Film With Two Rows of Holes Along the Pressure Side of a High-Pressure Nozzle Guide Vane
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
112
, pp.
513
521
.
5.
Benmansour, S., 1983, “Discharge Coefficient of Film Cooling Holes,” MPhil Thesis, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
6.
Benz, E., and Wittig, S., 1992, “Prediction of the Interaction of Coolant Ejection With the Main Stream at the Leading Edge of a Turbine Blade: Attached Grid Application,” International Symposium, Heat Transfer in Turbomachines, Greece.
7.
Byerley, A. R., 1989, “Heat Transfer Near to a Film Cooling Hole in a Gas Turbine Blade,” DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
8.
Camci
C.
, and
Arts
T.
,
1990
, “
An Experimental Convective Heat Transfer Investigation Around a Film-Cooled Gas Turbine Blade
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
112
, pp.
497
503
.
9.
Chu, T., Brown, A., and Garrett, S., 1985, “Discharge Coefficients of Impingement and Film Cooling Holes,” ASME Paper No 85-GT-81.
10.
Dewynne
J. N.
,
Howison
S. D.
,
Ockendon
J. R.
,
Moorland
L. C.
, and
Watson
E. J.
,
1989
, “
Slot Suction From Inviscid Channel Flow
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
200
, pp.
265
282
.
11.
Fitt
A. D.
,
Ockendon
J. R.
, and
Jones
T. V.
,
1985
, “
Aerodynamics of Slot-Film Cooling: Theory and Experiment
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
160
, pp.
15
27
.
12.
Forth, C. J. P., 1985, “An Investigation of Scaling Parameters Governing Film-Cooling,” DPhil Thesis, Oxford University, United Kingdom.
13.
Foucault, E., Demiboire, P., Bousgarbies, J. L., Vullieme, J. J., and Dorignac, E., 1993, “Etude Experimentale du Transfort de Chaleur pres d’une Paroi Plane Chauffee en Presence d’Injections Multiples (Ecoulement Subsonique),” AGARD Conference Proceedings 572, pp. 4–1 to 4–10.
14.
Haas
W.
,
Rodi
W.
, and
Scho¨nung
B.
,
1992
, “
The Influence of Density Difference Between Hot and Coolant Gas on Film Cooling by a Row of Holes: Predictions and Experiments
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
114
, pp.
747
755
.
15.
Hay
N.
, and
Spencer
A.
,
1992
, “
Discharge Coefficients of Cooling Holes With Radiused and Chamfered Inlets
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
114
, No.
4
, pp.
701
706
.
16.
Hay
N.
,
Henshall
S. E.
, and
Manning
A.
,
1994
, “
Discharge Coefficients of Holes Angled to the Flow Direction
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, No.
1
, pp.
92
96
.
17.
Hay, N., and Lampard, D., 1995, “The Discharge Coefficient of Flared Film Cooling Holes,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-15.
18.
Hay, N., Lampard, D., and Khaldi, A., 1994, “The Coefficient of Discharge of 30° Inclined Film Cooling Holes with Rounded Entries or Exits,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-180.
19.
Hay
N.
,
Lampard
D.
, and
Benmansour
S.
,
1983
, “
Effect of Crossflows on the Discharge Coefficient of Film Cooling Holes
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Power
, Vol.
105
, No.
2
, pp.
243
248
.
20.
Hay, N., Khaldi, A., and Lampard, D., 1987, “Effect of Crossflows on the Coefficient of Discharge of Film Cooling Holes With Rounded Entries or Exits,” 2nd ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering Conference, HI.
21.
Khaldi, A., 1987, “Discharge Coefficient of Film Cooling Holes With Rounded Entries or Exits,” PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
22.
Kutz
K. J.
, and
Speer
T. M.
,
1994
, “
Simulation of the Secondary Air System of Aero Engines
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
116
, pp.
306
315
.
23.
Lichtarowicz
A.
,
Duggins
R. K.
, and
Markland
E.
,
1965
, “
Discharge Coefficients for Incompressible Non-cavitating Flow Through Long Orifices
,”
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
, Vol.
7
, No.
2
, pp.
210
219
.
24.
Ligrani
P. M.
, and
Camci
C.
,
1985
, “
Adiabatic Film Cooling Effectiveness From Heat Transfer Measurements in Compressible Variable-Property Flow
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
107
, pp.
313
220
.
25.
Lloyd, S., and Brown, A., 1985, “Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in the Entrance Region of Circular Pipes,” ASME Paper no 85-GT-121.
26.
McGreehan
W. F.
, and
Schotsch
M. J.
,
1988
, “
Flow Characteristics of Long Orifices With Rotation and Corner Radiusing
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
110
, pp.
213
217
.
27.
McNown, J. S., and Hsu, E. T., 1959, “Application of Conformal Mapping to Divided Flow,” Paper No 6, First Mid-Western Conf. on Fluid Mechanics.
28.
Meyfarth, P. F., and Shine, A. J., 1965, “Experimental Study of Flow Through Moving Orifices,” ASME Journal of Basic Engineering, pp. 1082–1083.
29.
Morland, L. C., 1988, “Mathematical Models for a Fluid Flow Arising in Turbine Blade Cooling Passages,” DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
30.
O’Malley, K., 1988, “An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Slot Injection and Flow Separation,” DPhil thesis, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
31.
Parker, D. M., and Kercher, D. M., 1991, “An Enhanced Method to Compute the Compressible Discharge Coefficient of Thin and Long Orifices With Inlet Corner Radiusing,” ASME HTD-Vol 188.
32.
Rhode, J., Richard, R., and Metger, G. W., 1969, “Discharge Coefficients for Thick Plate Orifices With Approach Flow Perpendicular and Inclined to Orifice Axis,” NASA TND-5467.
33.
Rogers, T., and Hersh, A. S., 1975, “The Effect of Grazing Flow on the Steady State Resistance of Square-Edged Orifices,” AIAA 2nd Aero-Acoustics Conference, Paper No. 75–493.
34.
Sasaki, M., Takahara, K., Sakata, K., and Kumagai, T., 1969, “Discharge Coefficients for Thick Plate Orifices With Approach Flow Perpendicular and Inclined to Orifice Axis,” NASA TND-5467.
35.
Tillman
E. S.
, and
Jen
H. F.
,
1984
, “
Cooling Airfoil Studies at the Leading Edge of a Film Cooled Airfoil
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
106
, pp.
106
221
.
36.
Tillman
E. S.
,
Hartel
E. O.
, and
Jen
J. F.
,
1985
, “
The Prediction of Flow Through Leading Edge Holes in a Film Cooled Airfoil With and Without Inserts
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
107
, pp.
92
98
.
37.
Wittig
S.
,
Kim
S.
,
Jakoby
R.
, and
Weissert
I.
,
1996
, “
Experimental and Numerical Study of Orifice Discharge Coefficients in High-Speed Rotating Disks
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
118
, pp.
400
407
.
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