The boundary layer development and convective heat transfer on transonic turbine nozzle vanes are investigated using a compressible Navier–Stokes code with three low-Reynolds-number k–ε models. The mean-flow and turbulence transport equations are integrated by a four-stage Runge–Kutta scheme. Numerical predictions are compared with the experimental data acquired at Allison Engine Company. An assessment of the performance of various turbulence models is carried out. The two modes of transition, bypass transition and separation-induced transition, are studied comparatively. Effects of blade surface pressure gradients, free-stream turbulence level, and Reynolds number on the blade boundary layer development, particularly transition onset, are examined. Predictions from a parabolic boundary layer code are included for comparison with those from the elliptic Navier–Stokes code. The present study indicates that the turbine external heat transfer, under real engine conditions, can be predicted well by the Navier–Stokes procedure with the low-Reynolds-number k–ε models employed.

1.
Ameri, A. A., and Arnone, A., 1994, “Prediction of Turbine Blade Passage Heat Transfer Using a Zonal and a Two-Equation Turbulence Model,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-122.
2.
Basson
A. H.
,
Kunz
R. F.
, and
Lakshminarayana
B.
,
1993
, “
Grid Generation for Three-Dimensional Turbomachinery Geometries Including Tip Clearance
,”
AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power
, Vol.
9
, p.
59
59
.
3.
Chien, K. Y., 1982, “Prediction of Channel and Boundary-Layer Flows With a Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Model,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1.
4.
Crawford, M., 1985, TEXSTAN program, Dept. of Mech. Engr., Univ. of Texas at Austin.
5.
Fan
S.
,
Lakshminarayana
B.
, and
Barnett
M.
,
1993
, “
Low-Reynolds-Number k–ε Model for Unsteady Turbulent Boundary-Layer Flows
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
32
, No.
10
, pp.
1777
1784
.
6.
Fan
S.
, and
Lakshminarayana
B.
,
1996
, “
Computation and Simulation of Wake-Generated Unsteady Pressure and Boundary-Layers in Cascades: Parts 1 & 2
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
118
, pp.
96
122
.
7.
Hah, C., 1989, “Numerical Study of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer Near the Endwall of a Turbine Blade Row,” AIAA Paper No. 89-1689.
8.
Hylton, L. D., Mihelc, M. S., Turner, E. R., Nealy, D. A., and York, R. E., 1983, “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surface of Turbine Vanes,” NASA CR-168015, May.
9.
Kunz, R., and Lakshminarayana, B., 1992, “Explicit Navier–Stokes Computation of Cascade Flows Using the k–ε Model,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1.
10.
Lam
C.
, and
Bremhorst
K.
,
1981
, “
Modified Form of the k–ε Model for Predicting Wall Turbulence
,”
ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering
, Vol.
103
, p.
456
456
.
11.
Luo
J.
, and
Lakshminarayana
B.
,
1995
, “
Navier–Stokes Analysis of Turbine Flowfield and Heat Transfer
,”
J. of Propulsion and Power
, Vol.
11
, pp.
221
229
.
12.
Mayle
R. E.
,
1991
, “
The Role of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Gas-Turbine Engines
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
113
, pp.
509
537
.
13.
Mee
D. J.
,
Baines
N. C.
, and
Oldfield
M. L. G.
,
1992
, “
Detailed Boundary Layer Measurements on a Transonic Turbine Cascade
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
114
, pp.
163
172
.
14.
Nealy
D. A.
,
Mihelc
M. S.
,
Hylton
L. D.
, and
Gladden
H. J.
,
1984
, “
Measurements of Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surfaces of Highly Loaded Turbine Nozzle Guide Vanes
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
106
, pp.
149
158
.
15.
Patel
V. C.
,
Rodi
W.
, and
Scheuerer
G.
,
1985
, “
Turbulence Models for Near-Wall and Low-Reynolds-Number Flows
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
23
, No.
9
, pp.
1308
1319
.
16.
Savill, A. M., 1993, “Some Recent Progress in the Turbulence Modeling of By-Pass Transition,” Near-Wall Turbulent Flows, R. M. C. So et al., eds., Elsevier Science Publishers.
17.
Schmidt
R.
, and
Patankar
S.
,
1992
, “
Simulating Boundary Layer Transition With Low-Reynolds-Number k–epsi; Turbulence Models
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
114
, pp.
10
17
.
18.
Sieger, K., Schulz, A., Crawford, M. E., and Wittig, S., 1993, “An Evaluation of Low-Reynolds-Number k–ε Turbulence Models for Predicting Transition Under the Influence of Free-Stream Turbulence and Pressure Gradient,” Engr. Turbulence Modelling and Experiments, W. Rodi and F. Martelli, eds., Elsevier Science Publishers.
19.
Simoneau
R. J.
, and
Simon
F. F.
,
1993
, “
Progress Towards Understanding and Predicting Heat Transfer in the Turbine Gas Path
,”
Inter. J. of Heat & Fluid Flow
, Vol.
14
, pp.
106
128
.
20.
Taulbee
D. B.
,
Tran
L. T.
, and
Dunn
M. G.
,
1989
, “
Stagnation Point and Surface Heat Transfer for a Turbine Stage: Prediction and Comparison With Data
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
111
, pp.
28
35
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.