Numerical results are presented for a three-dimensional discrete-jet in crossflow problem typical of a realistic film-cooling application in gas turbines. Key aspects of the study include: (1) application of a systematic computational methodology that stresses accurate computational model of the physical problem, including simultaneous, fully elliptic solution of the crossflow, film-hole, and plenum regions; high-quality three-dimensional unstructured grid generation techniques, which have yet to be documented for this class of problems; the use of a high-order discretization scheme to reduce numerical errors significantly; and effective turbulence modeling; (2) a three-way comparison of results to both code validation quality experimental data and a previously documented structured grid simulation; and (3) identification of sources of discrepancy between predicted and measured results, as well as recommendations to alleviate these discrepancies. Solutions were obtained with a multiblock, unstructured/adaptive grid, fully explicit, time-marching, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes code with multigrid, local time stepping, and residual smoothing type acceleration techniques. The computational methodology was applied to the validation test case of a row of discrete jets on a flat plate with a streamwise injection angle of 35 deg, and two film-hole length-to-diameter ratios of 3.5 and 1.75. The density ratio for all cases was 2.0, blowing ratio was varied from 0.5 to 2.0, and free-stream turbulence intensity was 2 percent. The results demonstrate that the prescribed computational methodology yields consistently more accurate solutions for this class of problems than previous attempts published in the open literature. Sources of disagreement between measured and computed results have been identified, and recommendations made for future prediction of film-cooling problems.

1.
Andreopoulos
J.
, and
Rodi
W.
,
1984
, “
Experimental Investigation of Jets in a Crossflow
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
138
, pp.
92
127
.
2.
Bergeles
G.
,
Gosman
A. D.
, and
Launder
B. E.
,
1976
, “
The Near-Field Character of a Jet Discharged Normal to a Main Stream
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
107
, pp.
373
378
.
3.
Bergeles
G.
,
Gosman
A. D.
, and
Launder
B. E.
,
1977
, “
The Near-Field Character of a Jet Discharged Through a Wall at 30° to a Mainstream
,”
AIAA Journal
, Vol.
14
, pp.
499
504
.
4.
Bergeles
G.
,
Gosman
A. D.
, and
Launder
B. E.
,
1978
, “
The Turbulent Jet in a Cross Stream at Low Injection Rates: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Treatment
,”
Numerical Heat Transfer
, Vol.
1
, pp.
217
242
.
5.
Butkiewicz, J. J., Walters, D. K., McGovern, K. T., and Leylek, J. H., 1995, “A Systematic Computational Methodology Applied to a Jet-in-Crossflow; Part 1: Structured Grid Approach,” presented at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 12–17.
6.
Crawford, M. E., 1992, 1995, personal communications.
7.
Dawes, W. N., 1991, “The Development of a Solution-Adaptive Three-Dimensional Navier–Stokes Solver for Turbomachinery,” presented at AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA.
8.
Demuren, A. O., 1982, “Numerical Calculations of Steady Three-Dimensional Turbulent Jets in Cross Flow,” Rep. SFB 80/T/129. Sonderforschungsbereich 80, University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
9.
Garg
V. K.
, and
Gaugler
R. E.
,
1997
, “
Effect of Velocity and Temperature Distribution at the Hole Exit on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
119
, pp.
343
351
.
10.
Hyams, D. G., McGovern, K. T., and Leylek, J. H., 1996, “Effects of Geometry on Slot-Jet Film Cooling Performance,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-187.
11.
Jameson, A., Schmidt, W., and Turkel, E., 1981, “Numerical Solution of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using Runge–Kutta Time Stepping Schemes,” Technical Report AIAA-81-1259, AIAA 14th Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference, Palo Alto, CA.
12.
Launder
B. E.
, and
Spalding
D. B.
,
1974
, “
The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows
,”
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
, Vol.
3
, pp.
269
289
.
13.
Leonard
B. P.
,
1979
, “
A Stable and Accurate Convection Modeling Procedure Based on Quadratic Upstream Interpolation
,”
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
, Vol.
19
, pp.
59
98
.
14.
Leylek
J. H.
, and
Zerkle
R. D.
,
1994
, “
Discrete-Jet Film Cooling: A Comparison of Computational Results With Experiments
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
113
, pp.
358
368
.
15.
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.
16.
Pictrzyk, J. R., Bogard, D. G., and Crawford, M. E., 1988, “Hydrodynamic Measurements of Jets in Crossflow for Gas Turbine Film Cooling Applications,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-194.
17.
Pietrzyk
J. R.
,
Bogard
D. G.
, and
Crawford
M. E.
,
1990
, “
Effects of Density Ratio on the Hydrodynamics of Film Cooling
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
112
, pp.
437
443
.
18.
RAMPANT User’s Guide, 1993, Fluent Incorporated, Lebanon, NH.
19.
Roe
P. L.
,
1986
, “
Characteristic Based Schemes for the Euler Equations
,”
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
18
, pp.
337
365
.
20.
Sinha
A. K.
,
Bogard
D. G.
, and
Crawford
M. E.
,
1991
, “
Film Cooling Effectiveness Downstream of a Single Row of Holes With Variable Density Ratio
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
113
, pp.
442
449
.
21.
Walters, D. K., McGovern, K. T., Butkiewicz, J. J., and Leylek, J. H., 1995, “A Systematic Computational Methodology Applied to a Jet-in-Crossflow; Part 2: Unstructured/Adaptive Grid Approach,” presented at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 12–17.
22.
Weigand, B., and Harasgama, S. P., 1994, “Computations of a Film Cooled Turbine Rotor Blade With a Non-uniform Inlet Temperature Distribution Using a Three-Dimensional Viscous Procedure,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-15.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.