Brush seals have established a niche in the gas-to-gas sealing against leakage in modern turbine engines. The variable nature of the brush during operation makes leakage prediction difficult. A simple semi-empirical model based on an effective brush thickness parameter has been successfully used to correlate and predict brush seal leakage in engine environments. The model was extended to correlate a range of brush densities using a physically realistic brush thickness. Later, the model was based on mean diametric brush properties for a large range of circular brush seal geometries. However, the best basis for modeling bristle, distribution was unknown. This paper proposes a solution to the distribution problem by assuming a randomly distributed bristle bed. A random distribution leads to a rectangular array model that is supported by the quality of leakage data generalization. Applying the resultant effective thickness parameter to predict brush seal performance in turbine engines is discussed.

1.
Chupp, R. E., Holle, G. F., and Dowler, C. A., 1991, “Simple Leakage Flow Model for Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 91-1913.
2.
Chupp
R. E.
, and
Nelson
P.
,
1993
, “
Evaluation of Brush Seals for Limited-Life Engines
,”
AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power
, Vol.
9
, No.
1
, pp.
113
118
.
3.
Chupp
R. E.
, and
Dowler
C. A.
,
1993
, “
Performance Characteristics of Brush Seals for Limited-Life Engines
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
115
, pp.
390
396
.
4.
Dowler, C. A., Chupp, R. E., and Holle, G. F., 1992, “Simple Effective Thickness Model for Circular Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 92-3192.
5.
Gunter
A. Y.
, and
Shaw
W. A.
,
1945
, “
A General Correlation of Friction Factors for Various Types of Surfaces in Crossflow
,”
Transactions of the ASME
, Vol.
67
, No.
8
, pp.
643
660
.
6.
Holle, G. F., and Krishnan, M. R., 1990, “Gas Turbine Engine Brush Seal Applications,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2142.
7.
Holle, G. F., Chupp, R. E., and Dowler, C. A., 1992, “Brush Seal Leakage Correlations Based on Effective Thickness,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5–8, pp. 296–304.
8.
Jakob
M.
,
1938
,
Transactions of the ASME
, Vol.
60
, p.
381
381
.
9.
Kays
W. M.
,
London
A. L.
, and
Lo
R. K.
,
1954
,
Transactions of the ASME
, Vol.
76
, p.
387
387
.
10.
Knudsen, J. G., and Katz, D. L., 1958, “Chap. 11. Flow in the Shell Side of Multitube Heat Exchangers,” Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 323–341.
11.
Modi, V., 1992, “Modeling Bristle Lift-Off in Idealized Brush Seal Configurations,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5-8, pp. 623–632.
12.
Addy, G., 1995, “Results of Contacting Seal Testing at NASA Lewis Research Center,” Seals Flow Code Development—95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14–15.
13.
Addy, H. E., Jr., Steinetz, B. M., Hendricks, R. C., Howe, H. W., and Flowers, J., 1995, “Preliminary Results of Silicon Carbide Brush Seal Testing at NASA Lewis Research Center,” AIAA Paper No. 95-2763.
14.
Atkinson
E.
, and
Bristol
B.
,
1992
, “
Effects of Material Choices on Brush Seal Performance
,”
Lubrication Engineering
, Vol.
48
, No.
9
, Sept., pp.
740
746
.
15.
Bayley
F. J.
, and
Long
C. A.
,
1993
, “
A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study of Flow and Pressure Distributions in a Brush Seal
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
115
, pp.
404
410
.
16.
Basu, P., Datta, A., Johnson, R., Loewenthal, R., and Short, J., 1993, “Hysteresis and Bristle Stiffening Effects of Conventional Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 93-1996.
17.
Bill, R. C., 1991, “Army Research Concerns in Engine Sealing,” Seals Flow Code Development-91, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio, Mar., pp. 75–82.
18.
Braun, M. J., Hendricks, R. C., Canacci, V. A., and Kazmierchak, M., 1990, “Flow Visualization in a Single Simulated Brush Seal,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Hemisphere Publishing.
19.
Braun, M. J., Hendricks, R. C., and Canacci, V. A., 1990, “Non-intrusive Qualitative and Quantitative Flow Characterization and Bulk Flow Model for Brush Seals,” Proceedings of the Japanese International Tribology Conference, Nagoya, Japan.
20.
Braun, M. J., Hendricks, R. C., and Canacci, V. A., 1990, “Flow Visualization in a Simulated Brush Seal,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-217, 35th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, June 11-14, 1990.
21.
Braun, M. J., Canacci, V. A., and Hendricks, R. C., 1990, “Flow Visualization and Motion Analysis for a Series of Four Sequential Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2482.
22.
Braun, M. J., 1991, “Seals Research at the University of Akron,” Seals Flow Code Development-91, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, p. 101, Mar.
23.
Braun
M. J.
,
Canacci
V. A.
, and
Hendricks
R. C.
,
1991
, “
Flow Visualization and Quantitative Velocity and Pressure Measurements in Simulated Single and Double Brush Seals
,”
STLE Tribology Transactions
, Vol.
34
, No.
1
, pp.
70
80
.
24.
Braun, M. J., Hendricks, R. C., and Yang, Y., 1991, “Effects of Brush Seal Morphology in Leakage and Pressure Drops,” AIAA Paper No. 91-2106.
25.
Braun, M. J., Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., and Yoder, D., 1992, “Investigation of Flows in Bristle and Fiberglass Brush Seal Configurations,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5–8, pp. 315–325.
26.
Braun, M. J., 1992, “Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Brush Seals,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 181–196.
27.
Braun, M. J., and Kudriavtsev, V. V., 1993, “Brush Seal Numerical Simulation: Concepts and Advances,” Seals Flow Code Development—93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 159–197.
28.
Braun
M. J.
, and
Kudriavtsev
V. V.
,
1995
, “
A Numerical Simulation of a Brush Seal Section and Some Experimental Results
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
117
, pp.
190
202
.
29.
Braun, M. J., Dzodzo, M., and Kudriavtsev, V. V., 1995, “Tribological Activities at the University of Akron,” Seals Flow Code Development—95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14–15.
30.
Carlile
J. A.
,
Hendricks
R. C.
, and
Yoder
D. A.
,
1993
, “
Brush Seal Leakage Performance With Gaseous Working Fluids at Static and Low Rotor Speed Conditions
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
115
, pp.
397
403
.
31.
Carlile, J. A., Hendricks, R. C., Hibbs, R. I., McVey, S. E., and Scharrer, J. K., 1993, “Preliminary Experimental Results for a Cryogenic Brush Seal Configuration,” AIAA Paper No. 93-2535.
32.
Chew, J. W., Lapworth, B. L., and Milener, F. J., 1995, “Mathematical Modeling of Brush Seals,” to be published in the International Journal of Heal and Fluid Flow.
33.
Childs, D., 1992, “Dynamic Coefficients for Multiple Brush Seals,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 211–214.
34.
Chupp, R. E., 1990, “Brush Seal Investigation, Final Report for Period Sept. 1988-July 1990,” Report No. WRDC-TR-90-2123, Aero Propulsion and Power Laboratory, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, Dec.
35.
Chupp, R. E., Holle, G. F., and Dowler, C. A., 1991, “Simple Leakage Flow Model for Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 91-1913.
36.
Chupp
R. E.
, and
Nelson
P.
,
1993
, “
Evaluation of Brush Seals for Limited-Life Engines
,”
AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power
, Vol.
9
, No.
1
, pp.
113
118
.
37.
Chupp
R. E.
, and
Dowler
C. A.
,
1993
, “
Performance Characteristics of Brush Seals for Limited-Life Engines
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
115
, pp.
390
396
.
38.
Chupp, R. E., Johnson, R. P., and Loewenthal, R. G., 1995, “Brush Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 95-3146.
39.
Conner, K. J., and Childs, D. W., 1990a, “Rotordynamic Coefficient Test Results for a 4-Stage Brush Seal,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2139.
40.
Conner, K. J., and Childs, D. W., 1990b, “Rotordynamic and Leakage Characteristics of a 4-Stage Brush Seal, Final Report for Period Oct. 1988-Aug. 1990,” Report No. WL-TR-91-2013 (TL-SEAL-4-90), Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM, Dec.
41.
Conner, K. J., and Childs, D. W., 1992, “Rotordynamic and Leakage Characteristics of a 4-Stage Brush Seal, Final Report for Period 30 Oct. 1988–30 Aug. 1992,” Report No. WL-TR-92-2125, Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM, Dec.
42.
Derby, J., and England, R., 1992, “Tribopair Evaluation of Brush Seal Applications,” AIAA Paper No. 92-3715.
43.
Derby, J., 1992, “Tribopair Evaluation of Materials Brush Seal Applications,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 245–246.
44.
Dowler, C. A., Chupp, R. E., and Holle, G. F., 1992, “Simple Effective Thickness Model for Circular Brush Seals,” AIAA Paper No. 92-3192.
45.
Dowler, C., 1992, “Air Force Brush Seal Programs,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 149–156.
46.
Ferguson, J. G., 1988, “Brushes as High Performance Gas Turbine Seals,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-182, 33rd ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 6-9, 1988.
47.
Flower, R., 1990, “Brush Seal Development System,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2143.
48.
Gorelov
G. M.
,
Reznik
V. E.
, and
Tsibizov
V. I.
,
1988
, “
Experimental Study of Brush Seal Flow Characteristics and Comparison With a Labyrinth Seal
,”
Izvestiya VUZ. Aviatsionnaya Tekhnika
, Vol.
31
, No.
4
, pp.
43
46
[Allerton Press].
49.
Gross
D.
,
1990
, “
Estimating Leakage through Doors for Smoke Control
,”
Fire Technology
, Vol.
26
, No.
1
, pp.
75
81
.
50.
Hendricks, R. C., Braun, M. J., and Mullen, R. L., 1990, “Brush Seal Configurations for Cryogenic and Hot Gas Applications,” Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology, R. J. Richmond and S. T. Wu, eds., Vol. 2, NASA CP-3092-VOL-2, May 15–17, pp. 78–90.
51.
Hendricks, R. C., Braun, M. J., Cannacci, V. A., and Mullen, R. L., 1990, “Brush Seals in Vehicle Tribology,” Paper E-5712, presented at the 1990 Leeds/Lyon Symposium, Leeds, England, Sept.
52.
Hendricks, R. C., 1991, “Seals Related Research at NASA Lewis Research Center,” Seals Flow Code Developmental-91, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Mar. 1991, pp. 53–65.
53.
Hendricks, R. C., Schlumberger, J., Braun, M. J., Choy, F., and Mullen, R. L., 1991, “A Bulk Flow Model of a Brush Seal System,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-325, 36th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Orlando, Florida, June 3-6, 1991.
54.
Hendricks, R. C., Proctor, M., Schlumberger, J., Braun, M., and Mullen, R., 1991, “Some Preliminary Results of Brush Seal/Rotor Interference Effects on Leakage at Zero and Low RPM Using a Tapered-Plug Rotor,” AIAA Paper No. 91-3390.
55.
Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., and Liang, A. D., 1992, “Some Sealing Concepts—A Review, Part B: Brush Seal Systems,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5–8, pp. 265–276.
56.
Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., and Yoder, D., 1992, “Investigation of Flows in Bristle and Fiberglass Brush Seal Configurations,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, April 5–8, pp. 315–325.
57.
Hendricks, R. C., Liang, A. D., Childs, D. W., and Proctor, M. P., 1992, “Development of Advanced Seals for Space Propulsion Turbomachinery,” NASA TM-105659.
58.
Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., Liang, A. D., Steinetz, B. M., Easter, B. T., Onstott, J. W., and Howe, H., 1992, “Static Brush Seals for Propulsion Systems Interfaces,” Advanced Earth to Orbit Propulsion Technology, NASA Conference Publication 3174.
59.
Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., and Liang, A. D., 1992, “Brush Seal Bristle Flexure and Hard Rub Characteristics,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 95–116.
60.
Hendricks, R. C., Griffin, T. A., Bobula, G. A., Bill, R. C., and Howe, H. W., 1992, “Integrity Testing of Brush Seal in a T-700 Engine,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 117–138.
61.
Hendricks, R. C., Griffin, T. A., Bobula, G. A., Bill, R. C., and Howe, H. W., 1993, “Integrity Testing of Brush Seal in Shroud Ring of T-700 Engine,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-373, 38th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 24-27, 1993.
62.
Hendricks, R. C., Carlile, J. A., and Liang, A. D., 1993, “Brush Seal Low Surface Speed Hard-Rub Characteristics,” NASA TM-106169; AIAA Paper No. 93-2534.
63.
Hendricks, R. C., Flower, R., and Howe, H., 1993, “Development of a Brush Seals Program Leading to Ceramic Brush Seals,” Seals Flow Code Development—93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 99–117.
64.
Hendricks, R. C., Griffin, T. A., Bobula, G. A., Bill, R. C., Hull, D. R., and Csavina, K. R., 1993, “Some Metallographic Results for Brush Bristles and Brush Segments of a Shroud Ring Brush Seal Tested in a T-700 Engine,” Seals Flow Code Development—93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 325–366.
65.
Hendricks, R. C., Griffin, T. A., Kline, T. R., Csavina, K. R., Pancholi, A., and Sood, D., 1994, “Relative Performance Comparison between Baseline Labyrinth and Dual Brush Compressor Discharge Seals in a T-700 Engine Test,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-266.
66.
Hendricks, R. C., 1995, “Turbomachine Sealing,” Seals Flow Code Development-95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14-15.
67.
Holle, G. F., and Krishnan, M. R., 1990, “Gas Turbine Engine Brush Seal Applications,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2142.
68.
Holle, G. F., Chupp, R. E., and Dowler, C. A., 1992, “Brush Seal Leakage Correlations Based on Effective Thickness,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5-8, pp. 296–304.
69.
Howe, H., Jarrabet, G., and Tolokan, R., 1993, “Ceramic Brush Seals,” SBIR Final Report, NAS3-26319.
70.
Howe, H., 1993, “Ceramic Brush Seals Development,” Seals Flow Code Development—93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 133–150.
71.
Kudriavtsev, V. V., 1993, “Numerical and Analytical Study of Flows in Cylindrical Arrays,” Ph.D. Thesis, Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia.
72.
Kudriavtsev, V. V., and Braun, M. J., 1995, “Interstage Disk-Cavity/Brush Seal Numerical Flow Visualization Study,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-378.
73.
Liang, A. D., Hendricks, Shapiro, W., and Aggarwal, B., 1992, “Development of a Knowledge Based System for Tur-bopump Seals,” Advanced Earth to Orbit Propulsion Technology, NASA Conference Publication 3174, NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL, May 19-21, pp. 440–446.
74.
Liang, A. D., and Hendricks, eds., 1992, “Seals Flow Code Development-92,” NASA Conference Publication 10124.
75.
Loewenthal, R., 1993, “Current Developments in Brush Seals,” Seals Flow Code Development-93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 199–208.
76.
Loewenthal, R. G., 1995, “PRDA-II and III Brush Seal Development Programs at EG&G,” Seals Flow Code Development-95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14-15.
77.
Long, C. A., and Marras, Y., 1995, “Contact Force Measurements Under a Brush Seal,” “Interstage Disk-Cavity/Brush Seal Numerical Flow Visualization Study,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-211.
78.
Mahler, F., and Boyes, E., 1995, “The Application of Brush Seals in Large Commercial Jet Engines,” AIAA Paper No. 95-2617.
79.
Modi, V., 1992, “Modeling Bristle Lift-Off in Idealized Brush Seal Configurations,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5-8, pp. 623–632.
80.
Modi, V., 1992, “Modeling Bristle Lift-Off in Idealized Brush Seal Configurations,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124. pp. 217–232.
81.
Mullen, R. L., Braun, M. J., and Hendricks, R. C., 1990, “Numerical Modeling of Flows in Simulated Brush Seal Configurations,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2141.
82.
Munson, J., 1991, “Seals Development Activities at Allison Turbine Division,” Seals Flow Code Development-91, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Mar., p. 107.
83.
NASA Lewis Research Center, 1993, “Technical Support Package, High-Temperature, Pressure-Assisted Brush Seal,” NASA Tech Briefs, LEW-15086, Cleveland, OH.
84.
Proctor, M. P., 1993, “Brush Seals for Cryogenic Applications,” Seals Flow Code Development-93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 119–130.
85.
Proctor, M. P., 1995, “Cryogenic Brush Seal Test Results,” Seals Flow Code Development-95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14-15.
86.
Przekwas, A. J., Athavale, M. M., Hendricks, R. C., and Liang, A. D., 1992, “Development of a CFD Code for Accurate 3D Analysis of Cylindrical Seals,” Advanced Earth to Orbit Propulsion Technology, NASA Conference Publication 3174.
87.
Scharrer, J., 1991, “Seal Technology at Rocketdyne,” Seals Flow Code Development-91, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Mar. 1991, pp. 127–132.
88.
Scharrer, J. K., and Hendricks, R. C., 1992, “Results of Cryogenic Brush Seal Testing,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 215–216.
89.
Schlumberger, J. A., Proctor, M. P., and Hendricks, R. C., 1991, “Eccentricity Effects on Leakage of a Brush Seal at Low Speeds,” NASA TM-105141.
90.
Shapiro, W., Artiles, A., Aggarwal, B., Walowit, J., and Athavale, M. M., 1992, “Numerical, Analytical, Experimental Study of Fluid Dynamic Forces in Seals,” Final Interim Report No. 1, NASA CR-189113, Mechanical Technology, Inc., Latham, NY, Apr.
91.
Sharatchandra, M. C., and Rhode, D. L., 1996, “Computed Effects of Rotor-Induced Swirl on Brush Seal Performance, Part 1: Leakage Analysis,” to be published in the ASME Journal of Tribology.
92.
Sharatchandra, M. C., and Rhode, D. L., 1996, “Computed Effects of Rotor-Induced Swirl on Brush Seal Performance, Part 2: Bristle Force Analysis,” to be published in the ASME Journal of Tribology.
93.
Sousa, M., 1993, “Brush Seals for Turbine Engine Fuel Conservation,” Seals Flow Code Development-93, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10136, pp. 151–157.
94.
Steinetz, B. M., and Sirocky, P. J., 1990, “High Temperature, Flexible Pressure-Actuated, Brush Seal,” Report No. PAT-APPL-7-617752, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Nov. 26, 1990 (Patent date Dec. 31, 1991).
95.
Steinetz, B. M., Mutharasan, R., Du, G. W., Miller, J. H., and Ko, F., 1993, “Engine Panel Seals for Hypersonic Engine Applications: High Temperature Leakage Assessments and Flow Modeling, Addendum,” NASA LEW-15086, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
96.
Steinetz, R. C., and Hendricks, R. C., 1995, “Aeropropulsion Seal Development,” Seals Flow Code Development—95, NASA Lewis Research Center Seals Workshop, Cleveland, OH, June 14-15.
97.
Technetics Corporation, 1991, “Brush Seals,” Bulletin TC 850, 1991.
98.
Tolokan, R. P., Jarrabet, G. P., and Howe, H. W., 1992, “Metal Fiber Based Clearance Control Seals for Gas Turbine Engines,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-4), Honolulu, HI, Apr. 5-8, pp. 571–580.
99.
Valenti, M., 1995, “Upgrading Jet Turbine Technology,” Mechanical Engineering, Dec, pp. 56–60.
100.
Voorhees, W., 1992, “Brush Seals for Turbine Engine Fuel Conservation,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 233–244.
101.
Withers, P. A., 1992, “High Pressure Compressor Delivery Brush Seal of the International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1 Gas Turbine Engine,” Seals Flow Code Development-92, A. D. Liang and R. C. Hendricks, eds., NASA Conference Publication 10124, pp. 275–280.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.