High-speed compressor data immediately prior to rotating stall inception are analyzed and compared to stability theory. New techniques for the detection of small-amplitude rotating waves in the presence of noise are detailed, and experimental and signal processing pitfalls discussed. In all nine compressors examined, rotating stall precedes surge. Prior to rotating stall inception, all the machines support small-amplitude (< 1 percent of fully developed stall) waves traveling about the circumference. Traveling wave strength and structure are shown to be a strong function of corrected speed. At low speeds, a ∼0.5 times shaft speed wave is present for hundreds of rotor revolutions prior to stall initiation. At 100 percent speed, a shaft speed rotating wave dominates, growing as stall initiation is approached (fully developed rotating stall occurs at about 1/2 of shaft speed). A new, two-dimensional, compressible hydrodynamic stability analysis is applied to the geometry of two of the compressors and gives results in agreement with data. The calculations show that, at low corrected speeds, these compressors behave predominantly as incompressible machines. The wave that first goes unstable is the 1/2 shaft frequency mode predicted by the incompressible Moore–Greitzer analysis and previously observed in low-speed compressors. Compressibility becomes important at high corrected speeds and adds axial structure to the rotating waves. At 100 percent corrected speed, one of these hitherto unrecognized compressible modes goes unstable first. The rotating frequency of this mode is constant and predicted to be approximately coincident with shaft speed at design. Thus, it is susceptible to excitation by geometric nonuniformities in the compressor. This new understanding of compressor dynamics is used to introduce the concept of traveling wave energy as a real time measure of compressor stability. Such a wave energy-based scheme is shown consistently to give an indication of low stability for significant periods (100–200 rotor revolutions) before stall initiation, even at 100 percent corrected speed.

1.
Boussios, C. I., 1993, “Rotating Stall Inception: Nonlinear Simulation, and Detection with Inlet Distortion,” M.S. Thesis, MIT Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Feb.
2.
Bonnaure, L. P., 1991, “Modelling High Speed Multistage Compressor Stability,” M.S. Thesis, MIT Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Sept.
3.
Boyer, K. M., King, P. I., and Copenhaver, W. W., 1993, “Stall Inception in Single Stage, High-Speed Compressors With Straight and Swept Leading Edges,” AIAA Paper No. 93-1870.
4.
Day
I. J.
,
1993
a, “
Stall Inception in Axial Flow Compressors
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
115
, pp.
1
9
.
5.
Day
I. J.
,
1993
b, “
Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
115
, pp.
40
47
.
6.
Day, I. J., and Freeman, C., 1993c, “The Unstable Behaviour of Low and High Speed Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-26.
7.
Etchevers, O., 1992, “Evaluation of Rotating Stall Warning Schemes for Axial Compressors,” M.S. Thesis, MIT Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aug.
8.
Freeman, C., and Wilson, A. G., 1993, “Stall Inception and Post Stall Transients in an Aero Engine Axial Flow Compressor,” presented at I. Mech E.
9.
Gallops, G. W., Roadinger, T. J., and French, J. V., 1993, “Stall Testing and Analysis of Two Mixed Flow Turbofans,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-62.
10.
Garnier
V. H.
,
Epstein
A. H.
, and
Greitzer
E. M.
,
1991
, “
Rotating Waves as a Stall Inception Indication in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
113
, pp.
290
302
.
11.
Greitzer
E. M.
,
Fulkerson
D. A.
, and
Mazzawy
R. S.
,
1978
, “
Flow Field Coupling Between Compression System Components in Asymmetric Flow
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Power
, Vol.
100
, pp.
66
72
.
12.
Hendricks, G. J., et al., 1993, “Analysis of Rotating Stall Onset in High-Speed Axial Flow Compressors,” AIAA Paper No. 93-2233.
13.
Hoying, D. A., 1993, “Stall Inception in a Multistage High Speed Axial Compressor,” AIAA Paper No. 93-2386.
14.
Mansoux, C., Gysling, D. L., and Paduano, J. D., 1994, “Distributed Nonlinear Modeling and Stability Analysis of Axial Compressor Stall and Surge,” to appear Proc. of 1994 American Control Conference, Baltimore, June.
15.
McDougall
N. M.
,
Cumpsty
N. A.
, and
Hynes
T. P.
,
1990
, “
Stall Inception in Axial Compressors
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY
, Vol.
112
, pp.
116
125
.
16.
Moore
F. K.
, and
Greitzer
E. M.
,
1986
, “
A Theory of Post-stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems, Part I—Development of Equations; Part II—Application
,”
ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
, Vol.
108
, pp.
68
97
.
17.
Owen, A. K., 1993, “Analysis of Rig Test Data for an Axial/Centrifugal Compressor in the 12 kg/sec Class,” presented at AGARD 82nd PEP, Montreal, Canada, Oct.
18.
Paduano, J. D., 1992, “Active Control of Rotating Stall in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D. Thesis, MIT Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Feb.
19.
Widrow
B.
, et al.,
1975
, “
Adaptive Noise Cancelling: Principles and Applications
,”
Proc. IEEE
, Vol.
63
, pp.
1692
1716
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.