Internal rotating boundary-layer flows are strongly influenced by large circumferential strain and the turbulence field is anisotropic. This is especially true in the entry region of a rotating pipe where the flow is three dimensional, the centrifugal force due to fluid rotation is less important, and the circumferential strain created by surface rotation has a significant effect on the turbulence field near the wall. Consequently, viscous effects cannot be neglected in the near-wall region. Several low-Reynolds-number turbulence closures are proposed for the calculation of developing rotating pipe flows. Some are two-equation closures with and without algebraic stress correction, while others are full Reynolds-stress closures. It is found that two-equation closures with and without algebraic stress correction are totally inadequate for this three-dimensional flow, while Reynolds-stress closures give results that are in good agreement with measurements over a wide range of rotation numbers.

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