A small model of a Francis-type pump turbine was tested without the rotating shroud and the radial distribution of pressure in the rotor was measured using pressure taps on the stationary shroud. The mean tangential velocity component in the rotor was measured with a laser velocimeter, and the flow pattern was visualized using a camera which rotated with the rotor. Comparing data at the no-flow condition in the turbine mode with those in the pump mode, the effect of semi-open spaces at the inlet and at the exit of blade rows on the difference of pressure rise between the two modes was recognized, and the flow patterns and the distributions of tangential velocity component in these zones were utilized to understand the phenomena. Furthermore, some discussion is included on the relationship between the design head coefficient in the turbine mode and the S-shape characteristics.

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