In this study, a pure magnesium material reinforced with 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 weight % of CaO was prepared through disintegrated melt deposition technique. Nanocomposites were investigated for their sliding wear behaviour in dry condition at room temperature. Amount of CaO, Load, sliding distance, and Sliding velocity were selected as input design parameters at their five-level in central composite design using Minitab 18.1 statistical software. The influence of design parameters on wear loss is reported through the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). ANOVA was used to confirm the soundness of the developed regression equation. The results indicate the contribution of linear, quadratic, and interaction terms of design parameters on response. 3D response surface and 2D contour plots are indicated the interaction effect. The result shows that an increase in sliding velocity contributes to a decrease in the wear loss of the composites because of the emergence of protective oxidative layer at the surfaces of the pins, which is confirmed through FESEM and EDAX analysis of the pin surfaces. Wear loss of the material decreased as amount of CaO increased. The ANOVA analysis concluded that the sliding distance and load contribute significantly to wear loss of the composites and their percentage of contribution is 64.02 % and 3.69%.