The presence of secondary vortex motions in the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders is shown to increase the power input requirements to the inner rotating cylinder at any eccentricity ratio. The effect of superimposing axial flow is to delay the onset of instability and hence decrease this power input to the system. An evaluation of the rotational power losses due to instability as compared with the pumping power required to introduce the necessary axial flow rates is carried out for three gap-radius ratios.

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