The relative sliding at the meshing point directly affects the contact and lubrication characteristics of the gear pair and is an important factor of gear wear and power loss. In this study, for investigation of a new type of low sliding ratio (LSR) gear pair whose tooth profile is constructed by a cubic function, a three-dimensional (3D) mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) line contact model was established with consideration of the effect of tooth profile geometry, transient motion characteristics, load distribution, and machining roughness. The distribution of the center film thickness of the LSR gear along the meshing line was predicted through an example the result of which was compared with a typical line contact EHL formula to verify the model. In addition, the difference was investigated in film thickness distribution of friction coefficient and temperature rise between LSR spur gears and involute spur gears. Hence, the effect of 3D rough tooth surface on the contact lubrication characteristics of LSR gears was discussed. The results demonstrated that the minimum center film thickness of the LSR gear appeared at the alternating point of the concave and convex tooth surfaces. At the same time, compared with the involute gear, the LSR gear significantly increased the film thickness at the start and ending points of the meshing and reduced the friction coefficient and the flash temperature rise.