In this paper, the mechanism of energy transfer from cavitation bubbles to solids is demonstrated as shock waves. To identify this mechanism, cavitation bubble structures, the corresponding damaged surface, and the wear particles in vibratory erosion tests on pure aluminum Al-99.999 using high-speed and scanning electron microscope photography were observed. The eroded surface morphology was in the form of large swellings (hundreds of micrometers), which embodies the plastic flow. Results indicate that large swelling regions formed in a few seconds are caused by shock pressure waves and not by a microjet only several micrometers in size. The observed surface erosion and falling particles make it clear that the mechanism of cavitation wear is fatigue failure.