In this study, a pure magnesium material reinforced with 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 w% of CaO was prepared through disintegrated melt deposition technique (DMD process). Nanocomposites were investigated for their sliding wear behavior in dry condition at room temperature. The amount of CaO, load, sliding distance, and sliding velocity were selected as input design parameters at their five level in central composite design using minitab 18.1 statistical software. The influence of design parameters on wear loss is reported through the response surface methodology (RSM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to confirm the soundness of the developed regression equation. The results indicate the contribution of linear, quadratic, and interaction terms of design parameters on response. Three-dimensional response surface and two-dimensional contour plots indicate the interaction effect. The result shows that an increase in the sliding velocity contributes to a decrease in the wear loss of the composites because of the emergence of protective oxidative layer at the surfaces of the pins, which is confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis analyses of the pin surfaces. Wear loss of the material decreased as the amount of CaO increased. The ANOVA analysis concluded that the sliding distance and load contribute significantly to wear loss of the composites, and their percentage of contribution is 64.02% and 3.69%.