Abstract

The tribological behavior of lubricants, prepared with a mineral base oil, lauryl alcohol, and different concentrations of coumarin, was examined using a four-ball tester under constant and variable friction velocity conditions. At constant friction velocity, the maximum non-seizure load (PB) increased from 304 N to 392 N at a coumarin concentration of 0.5 wt%. Lubricants with 0.7 wt% coumarin exhibited optimum lubricating properties, and the maximum reductions in friction coefficient (FC) and wear scar diameter (WSD) were 20.0% and 11.88%, respectively. Further investigation of the tribological mechanism implied that the ester group in the coumarin molecule established a connection with the surface atom, resulting in the formation of a tribofilm, which further restricted the adhesion wear regime. Additionally, under variable friction velocity conditions, increasing the coumarin concentration had an obvious effect on the mixed lubrication (ML) and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regions but not on other lubrication regions. Moreover, a mathematical model was proposed to show the relationship between FC and friction velocity. Importantly, the present work clarifies the effect of friction velocity on the tribological behavior of coumarin and also supports the use of coumarin as a novel additive in mineral oils.

References

References
1.
Madanhire
,
I.
, and
Mbohwa
,
C.
,
2016
,
Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants
,
Springer
,
New York
.
2.
Hamdan
,
S. H.
,
Chong
,
W. W. F.
,
Ng
,
J. H.
,
Chong
,
C. T.
, and
Zhang
,
H.
,
2018
, “
Nano-Tribological Characterization of Palm Oil-Based Trimethylolpropane Ester for Application as Boundary Lubricant
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
127
(
11
), pp.
1
9
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.05.036
3.
Du
,
S. N.
,
Sun
,
J. L.
, and
Wu
,
P.
,
2018
, “
Preparation, Characterization and Lubrication Performances of Graphene Oxide-TiO2 Nanofluid in Rolling Strips
,”
Carbon
,
140
(
12
), pp.
338
351
. 10.1016/j.carbon.2018.08.055
4.
Cerqueira
,
A. F. R.
,
Almodovar
,
V. A. S.
,
Neves
,
M. G. P. M. S.
, and
Tome
,
A. C.
,
2017
, “
Coumarin-Tetrapyrrolic Macrocycle Conjugates: Synthesis and Applications
,”
Molecules
,
22
(
6
), pp.
994
1020
. 10.3390/molecules22060994
5.
Hassan
,
M. Z.
,
Osman
,
H.
,
Ali
,
M. A.
, and
Ahsan
,
M. J.
,
2016
, “
Therapeutic Potential of Coumarins as Antiviral Agents
,”
Eur. J. Med. Chem.
,
123
(
11
), pp.
236
255
. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.07.056
6.
Zou
,
Q.
,
Fang
,
Y.
,
Zhao
,
Y.
,
Zhao
,
H.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Gu
,
Y.
,
2013
, “
Synthesis and In Vitro Photocytotoxicity of Coumarin Derivatives for One-and Two-Photon Excited Photodynamic Therapy
,”
J. Med. Chem.
,
56
(
13
), pp.
5288
5294
. 10.1021/jm400025g
7.
Mungse
,
H. P.
,
Gupta
,
K.
,
Singh
,
R.
,
Sharma
,
O. P.
,
Sugimura
,
H.
, and
Khatri
,
O. P.
,
2019
, “
Alkylated Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide: Grafting Density, Dispersion Stability to Enhancement of Lubricating Properties
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
541
(
4
), pp.
150
162
. 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.01.064
8.
Zhang
,
H.
,
Yoshimi
,
T.
,
Fukuzawa
,
K.
, and
Itoh
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Is the Trend of Stribeck Curves Followed by Nano-Lubrication With Molecularly Thin Liquid Lubricant Films?
Tribol. Int.
,
119
(
3
), pp.
82
87
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2017.10.028
9.
Kumar
,
V.
,
Sinha
,
S. K.
, and
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
2018
, “
Wear Evaluation of Engine Piston Rings Coated With Dual Layer Hard and Soft Coatings
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
141
(
3
), p.
031301
. 10.1115/1.4041762
10.
He
,
T.
,
Zhu
,
D.
,
Wang
,
J. X.
, and
Wang
,
Q. J.
,
2017
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Stribeck Curves for Lubricated Counter Formal Contacts
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
139
(
2
), p.
021505
. 10.1115/1.4034051
11.
He
,
J. Q.
,
Sun
,
J. L.
,
Meng
,
Y. N.
, and
Yan
,
X. D.
,
2019
, “
Preliminary Investigations on the Tribological Performance of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanofluids as Lubricant for Steel/Steel Friction Pairs
,”
Surf. Topogr. Metrol.
,
7
(
1
), p.
015022
. 10.1088/2051-672X/ab0afb
12.
Trivedi
,
H. K.
, and
Bhatt
,
D. V.
,
2017
, “
Tribological Behaviour Under Conformal and Nonconformal Contact Condition of Piston Ring and Cylinder Liner Material in a Reciprocating Bench Test
,”
IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
239
, p.
012014
. 10.1088/1757-899X/239/1/012014
13.
Joshi
,
G. S.
,
Putignano
,
C.
,
Gaudiuso
,
C.
,
Stark
,
T.
,
Kiedrowski
,
T.
,
Ancona
,
A.
, and
Carbone
,
G.
,
2018
, “
Effects of the Micro Surface Texturing in Lubricated Non-Conformal Point Contacts
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
127
(
11
), pp.
296
301
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.06.021
14.
Cassin
,
G.
,
Heinrich
,
E.
, and
Spikes
,
H. A.
,
2001
, “
The Influence of Surface Roughness on the Lubrication Properties of Adsorbing and Non-Adsorbing Biopolymers
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
95
102
. 10.1023/A:1016702906095
15.
Zhou
,
G. W.
,
Mi
,
X. W.
,
Wang
,
J. X.
, and
Hu
,
R. K.
,
2018
, “
Experimental Comparison Between the Stribeck Curves of Water Lubricated Rubber Bearing With Straight and Spiral Grooves
,”
Ind. Lubr. Tribol.
,
70
(
7
), pp.
1326
1330
. 10.1108/ILT-10-2017-0296
16.
Resendiz
,
J.
,
Egberts
,
P.
, and
Park
,
S. S.
,
2018
, “
Tribological Behavior of Multi-Scaled Patterned Surfaces Machined Through Inclined End Milling and Micro Shot Blasting
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
66
(
4
), pp.
132
145
. 10.1007/s11249-018-1086-y
17.
Dawczyk
,
J.
,
Morgan
,
N.
,
Russo
,
J.
, and
Spikes
,
H.
,
2019
, “
Film Thickness and Friction of ZDDP Tribofilms
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
67
(
2
), pp.
34
49
. 10.1007/s11249-019-1148-9
18.
Hansen
,
J.
,
Björling
,
M.
, and
Larsson
,
R.
,
2019
, “
Mapping of the Lubrication Regimes in Rough Surface EHL Contacts
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
131
(
3
), pp.
637
651
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.11.015
19.
Perfilyev
,
V.
,
Moshkovich
,
A.
,
Lapsker
,
I.
, and
Rapoport
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Friction and Wear of Copper Samples in the Steady Friction State
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
43
(
8
), pp.
1449
1456
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2010.01.022
20.
Pickens
,
D.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Nishino
,
T.
, and
Wang
,
Q. J.
,
2019
, “
Experimental Analysis of Chromium Molybdenum Coatings Under Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication for Film Thickness, Friction, and Wear Characterizations
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
141
(
6
), p.
061502
. 10.1115/1.4043182
21.
Liu
,
L.
,
Yang
,
C.
, and
Sheng
,
Y. Y.
,
2018
, “
Wear Model Based on Real-Time Surface Roughness and Its Effect on Lubrication Regimes
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
126
(
10
), pp.
16
20
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.05.010
22.
Xu
,
Y. F.
,
Peng
,
Y. B.
,
Dearn
,
K. D.
,
Zheng
,
X. J.
,
Yao
,
L. L.
, and
Hu
,
X. G.
,
2015
, “
Synergistic Lubricating Behaviors of Graphene and MoS2 Dispersed in Esterified Bio-Oil for Steel/Steel Contact
,”
Wear
,
342
(
11
), pp.
297
309
. 10.1016/j.wear.2015.09.011
23.
Li
,
N.
,
Feng
,
L. P.
,
Li
,
D. P.
,
Su
,
J.
, and
Liu
,
Z. T.
,
2016
, “
Optical and Electrical Properties of Al-WS2 Films via H2S Sulfurization of Al-WOx
,”
Mater. Design
,
92
(
2
), pp.
129
134
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.12.011
24.
Mohammed
,
A. A.
,
Emad
,
M. A.
, and
Nasser
,
Y. M.
,
2016
, “
Aluminum Titania Nanoparticle Composites as Nonprecious Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical Generation of H2
,”
Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
8
(
24
), pp.
23655
23667
. 10.1021/acsami.6b05828
25.
Hansen
,
J.
,
Björling
,
M.
, and
Larsson
,
R.
,
2020
, “
Topography Transformations Due to Running in of Rolling-Sliding Non-Conformal Contacts
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
144
(
4
), p.
106126
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.106126
26.
Wang
,
G. Q.
,
Ma
,
R. D.
, and
Liu
,
J. Y.
,
1997
, “
Study on the Coefficient of Dynamic Friction Between Frictional Metal Material
,”
Trans. CSAE
,
13
(
3
), pp.
35
38
.
27.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
,
1984
, “
The Least Wear
,”
Wear
,
100
(
1–3
), pp.
533
541
. 10.1016/0043-1648(84)90031-0
28.
Sun
,
J. L.
,
Zhang
,
B. T.
, and
Dong
,
C.
,
2017
, “
Effects of Ferrous Powders on Tribological Performances of Emulsion for Cold Rolling Strips
,”
Wear
,
376
(
3
), pp.
869
875
. 10.1016/j.wear.2016.12.012
29.
Bataille
,
C.
,
Luc
,
E.
,
Bigerellen
,
M.
,
Deltombe
,
R.
, and
Dubar
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Rolls Wear Characterization in Hot Rolling Process
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
100
(
9
), pp.
328
337
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.03.012
30.
Costa
,
H. L.
,
Oliveira
,
M. M.
, Jnr
, and
De Mello
,
J. D. B.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Debris Size on the Reciprocating Sliding Wear of Aluminum
,”
Wear
,
376
(
4
), pp.
1399
1410
. 10.1016/j.wear.2016.10.025
31.
Vakis
,
A. I.
,
Yastrebov
,
V. A.
,
Scheibert
,
J.
, and
Nicola
,
L.
,
2018
, “
Modeling and Simulation in Tribology Across Scales: An Overview
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
125
(
9
), pp.
169
199
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.02.005
You do not currently have access to this content.