The structural parameters of 23 ionic liquids were calculated by the Hartree–Fock ab initio method. The relationship between the antiwear properties of ionic liquids dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and the structural parameters of the ionic liquids was studied using multiple linear regression analysis. A quantitative structure tribo-ability relationship model with good fitting and prediction ability was established. The results show that entropy is the most important structural parameter affecting the antiwear performance of ionic liquid-dimethyl sulfoxide systems. The entropy of the ionic liquid is related to the hydrogen bonding in the system, and an orderly arrangement of this hydrogen bonding is beneficial in terms of improving antiwear performance.