Abstract

Microstructure, hardness, and micro-abrasion behavior of borided H13 tool steel (borided at 1073, 1173, and 1273 K with nanoboron powder for 6 h) were studied. A single-phase boride layer was observed on the borided sample at 1073 K, while a double-phase boride layer was observed on the borided samples at high temperatures. FeB–Fe2B phases as well as CrB–MnB phases were determined in the XRD analysis of the samples. The hardness of the borided samples increased up to values above 2000 HV0.1. The thicker boride layer obtained due to the boriding process at high temperatures provided the retention of high hardness in the inner regions. The highest micro-abrasion resistance was obtained with the borided sample at 1273 K. Depending on the increasing load, volume losses increased on all samples under all conditions. Higher wear losses were determined in the tests performed with high-dimensional SiC. In the tests conducted with SiC F800, the dominant wear mechanism was micro-grooving wear mechanism, while in SiC F1200 tests the wear mechanism was micro-rolling and micro-scratching mechanisms. The abrasion resistance of the untreated sample was attributed to the abrasive particles sinking onto the surface.

References

References
1.
Zhang
,
Q. Y.
,
Zhou
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
J. Q.
,
Chen
,
K. M.
,
Mo
,
J. G.
,
Cui
,
X. H.
, and
Wang
,
S. Q.
,
2015
, “
Comparative Research on Dry Sliding Wear of Hot-Dip Aluminized and Uncoated AISI H13 Steel
,”
Wear
,
344–345
, pp.
22
31
. 10.1016/j.wear.2015.10.017
2.
Telasang
,
G.
,
Dutta Majumdar
,
J.
,
Padmanabham
,
G.
, and
Manna
,
I.
,
2015
, “
Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Surface Engineered AISI H13 Hot Working Tool Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
261
, pp.
69
78
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.11.058
3.
Balusamy
,
T.
,
Sankara Narayanan
,
T. S. N.
,
Ravichandran
,
K.
,
Song Park
,
I.
, and
Lee
,
M. H.
,
2013
, “
Pack Boronizing of AISI H11 Tool Steel: Role of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment
,”
Vacuum
,
97
, pp.
36
43
. 10.1016/j.vacuum.2013.04.006
4.
Gök
,
M. S.
,
Küçük
,
Y.
,
Erdoğan
,
A.
,
Öge
,
M.
,
Kanca
,
E.
, and
Günen
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Borided Hot-Work Tool Steel at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
328
, pp.
54
62
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.08.008
5.
Yang
,
H.
,
Wu
,
X.
,
Cao
,
G.
, and
Yang
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Enhanced Boronizing Kinetics and High Temperature Wear Resistance of H13 Steel With Boriding Treatment Assisted by Air Blast Shot Peening
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
307
, pp.
506
516
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.09.029
6.
Ozbek
,
I.
, and
Bindal
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Mechanical Properties of Boronized AISI W4 Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
154
(
1
), pp.
14
20
. 10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01409-8
7.
Genel
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Boriding Kinetics of H13 Steel
,”
Vacuum
,
80
(
5
), pp.
451
457
. 10.1016/j.vacuum.2005.07.013
8.
Motallebzadeh
,
A.
,
Dilektasli
,
E.
,
Baydogan
,
M.
,
Atar
,
E.
, and
Cimenoglu
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Evaluation of the Effect of Boride Layer Structure on the High Temperature Wear Behavior of Borided Steels
,”
Wear
,
328–329
, pp.
110
114
. 10.1016/j.wear.2015.01.029
9.
Sahin
,
S.
, and
Meric
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Investigation of the Effect of Boronizing on Cast Irons
,”
Mater. Res. Bull.
,
37
(
5
), pp.
971
979
. 10.1016/S0025-5408(02)00697-9
10.
Taktak
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Some Mechanical Properties of Borided AISI H13 and 304 Steels
,”
Mater. Des.
,
28
(
6
), pp.
1836
1843
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2006.04.017
11.
López-Perrusquia
,
N.
,
Martínez-Trinidad
,
J.
,
Escobar-Galindo
,
R.
,
Ortiz-Domínguez
,
M.
,
Meneses-Amador
,
A.
, and
Campos-Silva
,
I.
,
2009
, “
Characterization of AISI 4140 Borided Steels
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
256
(
8
), pp.
2372
2379
.
12.
Erdoğan
,
A.
,
2019
, “
Investigation of High Temperature Dry Sliding Behavior of Borided H13 Hot Work Tool Steel With Nanoboron Powder
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
357
, pp.
886
895
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.10.066
13.
Taktak
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Tribological Behaviour of Borided Bearing Steels at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
201
(
6
), pp.
2230
2239
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.03.032
14.
Sen
,
S.
,
Ozbek
,
I.
,
Sen
,
U.
, and
Bindal
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Mechanical Behavior of Borides Formed on Borided Cold Work Tool Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
135
(
2–3
), pp.
173
177
. 10.1016/S0257-8972(00)01064-1
15.
He
,
X.
,
Xiao
,
H.
,
Fevzi Ozaydin
,
M.
,
Balzuweit
,
K.
, and
Liang
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Low-Temperature Boriding of High-Carbon Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
263
, pp.
21
26
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.12.071
16.
Dybkov
,
V. I.
,
Lengauer
,
W.
, and
Barmak
,
K.
,
2005
, “
Formation of Boride Layers at the Fe–10% Cr Alloy–Boron Interface
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
398
(
1–2
), pp.
113
122
. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.02.033
17.
Dokumaci
,
E.
,
Özkan
,
I.
, and
Önay
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Boronizing on the Cyclic Oxidation of Stainless Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
232
, pp.
22
25
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.04.047
18.
Kayali
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Investigation of Diffusion Kinetics of Borided AISI P20 Steel in Micro-Wave Furnace
,”
Vacuum
,
121
, pp.
129
134
. 10.1016/j.vacuum.2015.08.006
19.
Garcia-Bustos
,
E.
,
Figueroa-Guadarrama
,
M. A.
,
Rodríguez-Castro
,
G. A.
,
Gómez-Vargas
,
O. A.
,
Gallardo-Hernández
,
E. A.
, and
Campos-Silva
,
I.
,
2013
, “
The Wear Resistance of Boride Layers Measured by the Four-Ball Test
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
215
, pp.
241
246
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.08.090
20.
Balusamy
,
T.
,
Sankara Narayanan
,
T. S. N.
,
Ravichandran
,
K.
,
Park
,
I. S.
, and
Lee
,
M. H.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on Pack Boronizing of AISI 304 Stainless Steel
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
232
, pp.
60
67
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.04.053
21.
Ulutan
,
M.
,
Yildirim
,
M. M.
,
Çelik
,
O. N.
, and
Buytoz
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Tribological Properties of Borided AISI 4140 Steel With the Powder Pack-Boriding Method
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
38
(
3
), pp.
231
239
. 10.1007/s11249-010-9597-1
22.
Bose
,
K.
, and
Wood
,
R. J. K.
,
2003
, “
Influence of Load and Speed on Rolling Micro-Abrasion of CVD Diamond and Other Hard Coatings
,”
Diam. Relat. Mater.
,
12
(
3–7
), pp.
753
756
. 10.1016/S0925-9635(02)00238-8
23.
Karaoglanli
,
A. C.
,
Caliskan
,
H.
,
Gok
,
M. S.
,
Erdogan
,
A.
, and
Turk
,
A.
,
2013
, “
A Comparative Study of the Microabrasion Wear Behavior of CoNiCrAlY Coatings Fabricated by APS, HVOF, and CGDS Techniques
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
57
(
1
), pp.
11
17
. 10.1080/10402004.2013.820372
24.
Çalişkan
,
H.
,
Erdoǧan
,
A.
,
Panjan
,
P.
,
Gök
,
M. S.
, and
Karaoǧlanli
,
A. C.
,
2013
, “
Micro-Abrasion Wear Testing of Multilayer Nanocomposite Tialsin/Tisin/Tialn Hard Coatings Deposited on the AISI H11 Steel
,”
Mater. Technol.
,
47
(
5
), pp.
563
568
.
25.
Korkut
,
M. H.
,
Küçük
,
Y.
,
Karaoglanli
,
A. C.
,
Erdogan
,
A.
,
Er
,
Y.
, and
Gök
,
M. S.
,
2013
, “
Effect of the Abrasive Grit Size on the Wear Behavior of Ceramic Coatings During a Micro-Abrasion Test
,”
Mater. Technol.
,
47
(
6
), pp.
695
699
.
26.
Krelling
,
A. P.
,
Teixeira
,
F.
,
da Costa
,
C. E.
,
Almeida
,
E. A. dos S. de
,
Zappelino
,
B.
, and
Milan
,
J. C. G.
,
2018
, “
Microabrasive Wear Behavior of Borided Steel Abraded by SiO2 Particles
,”
J. Mater. Res. Technol.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
766
776
.
27.
Krelling
,
A. P.
,
da Costa
,
C. E.
,
Milan
,
J. C. G.
, and
Almeida
,
E. A. S.
,
2017
, “
Micro-Abrasive Wear Mechanisms of Borided AISI 1020 Steel
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
111
, pp.
234
242
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2017.03.017
28.
Demir
,
M.
,
Kanca
,
E.
,
Er
,
Y.
,
Gök
,
M. S.
,
Günen
,
A.
, and
Sağlam
,
G.
,
2016
, “
Microabrasion Wear Behavior of Fast-Borided Steel Tooth Drill Bits
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
60
(
2
), pp.
267
275
.
29.
Cimenoglu
,
H.
,
Atar
,
E.
, and
Motallebzadeh
,
A.
,
2014
, “
High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Borided Surfaces Based on the Phase Structure of the Boride Layer
,”
Wear
,
309
(
1–2
), pp.
152
158
. 10.1016/j.wear.2013.10.012
30.
Petrova
,
R. S.
,
Suwattananont
,
N.
, and
Samardzic
,
V.
,
2008
, “
The Effect of Boronizing on Metallic Alloys for Automotive Applications
,”
J. Mater. Eng. Perform.
,
17
(
3
), pp.
340
345
. 10.1007/s11665-008-9228-2
31.
Martini
,
C.
,
Palombarini
,
G.
, and
Carbucicchio
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Mechanism of Thermochemical Growth of Iron Borides on Iron
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
39
(
3
), pp.
933
937
. 10.1023/B:JMSC.0000012924.74578.87
32.
Silva
,
F. J. G.
,
Baptista
,
A. P. M.
,
Andrade
,
M. F. C.
,
Martinho
,
R. P.
, and
Alexandre
,
R. J. D.
,
2009
, “
Influence of the Abrasive Particles Size in the Micro-Abrasion Wear Tests of TiAlSiN Thin Coatings
,”
Wear
,
267
(
1–4
), pp.
12
18
.
33.
Shipway
,
P. H.
, and
Hogg
,
J. J.
,
2007
, “
Wear of Bulk Ceramics in Micro-Scale Abrasion—The Role of Abrasive Shape and Hardness and Its Relevance to Testing of Ceramic Coatings
,”
Wear
,
263
(
7–12
), pp.
887
895
. 10.1016/j.wear.2006.11.028
34.
Milman
,
Y. V.
,
Chugunova
,
S. I.
,
Goncharova
,
I. V.
,
Chudoba
,
T.
,
Lojkowski
,
W.
, and
Gooch
,
W.
,
1999
, “
Temperature Dependence of Hardness in Silicon ± Carbide Ceramics With Different Porosity
,”
Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater.
,
17
(
5
), pp.
361
368
.
35.
Vargas-Gonzalez
,
L.
,
Speyer
,
R. F.
, and
Campbell
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Flexural Strength, Fracture Toughness, and Hardness of Silicon Carbide and Boron Carbide Armor Ceramics
,”
Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.
,
7
(
5
), pp.
643
651
. 10.1111/j.1744-7402.2010.02501.x
36.
Mo
,
J. L.
,
Zhu
,
M. H.
,
Leyland
,
A.
, and
Matthews
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Impact Wear and Abrasion Resistance of CrN, AlCrN and AlTiN PVD Coatings
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
215
, pp.
170
177
. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.08.077
37.
Ibáñez
,
M. J.
,
Gilabert
,
J.
,
Vicent
,
M.
,
Gómez
,
P.
, and
Muñoz
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Determination of the Wear Resistance of Traditional Ceramic Materials by Means of Micro-Abrasion Technique
,”
Wear
,
267
(
11
), pp.
2048
2054
. 10.1016/j.wear.2009.08.006
You do not currently have access to this content.