The steady-state described by running-in attractor in the perspective of nonlinearity, is closely dependent on the running-in parameters. To study the dependence of running-in attractor on system parameters, pin-on-disk friction tests were performed. A suitable contact between pin and disk was ensured by a self-adaptive pin holder, standard block, and self-adapting amendment with sandpaper. Range analysis of correlation dimension, predictability, and entropy shows that running-in attractor is system dependent, which is manifested by the dependence of nonlinear parameters of the attractor on the running-in parameters. Further results indicate that the correlation dimension and entropy increase with load and velocity, but decrease along with initial roughness of a harder counterface, and predictability shows an inverse variation tendency with correlation dimension and entropy.

References

References
1.
Xie
,
Y. B.
,
2001
, “
Three Axioms in Tribology
,”
Tribol.
,
21
(
3
), pp.
161
166
(in Chinese).
2.
Xie
,
Y. B.
,
1999
, “
On the Tribology Design
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
32
(
7
), pp.
351
358
.
3.
Frąś
,
T.
,
Rusinek
,
A.
,
Pęcherski
,
R. B.
,
Bernier
,
R.
, and
Jankowiak
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Analysis of Friction Influence on Material Deformation Under Biaxial Compression State
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
80
, pp.
14
24
.
4.
Podgursky
,
V.
,
Adoberg
,
E.
,
Surženkov
,
A.
,
Kimmari
,
E.
,
Viljus
,
M.
,
Hartelt
,
M.
,
Wasche
,
R.
,
Sima
,
M.
, and
Kulu
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Dependence of the Friction Coefficient on Roughness Parameters During Early Stage Fretting of (Al, Ti)N Coated Surfaces
,”
Wear
,
271
(
5–6
), pp.
853
858
.
5.
Bucholz
,
E. W.
,
Kong
,
C. S.
,
Marchman
,
K. R.
,
Sawyer
,
W. G.
,
Phillpot
,
S. R.
,
Sinnott
,
S. B.
, and
Rajan
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Data-Driven Model for Estimation of Friction Coefficient Via Informatics Methods
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
47
(
2
), pp.
211
221
.
6.
Rosenkranz
,
A.
,
Pangraz
,
J. C.
,
Gachot
,
C.
, and
Mucklich
,
F.
,
2016
, “
Load-Dependent Run-In and Wear Behaviour of Line-Like Surface Patterns Produced by Direct Laser Interference Patterning
,”
Wear
,
368–369
, pp.
350
357
.
7.
Kumar
,
R.
,
Prakash
,
B.
, and
Sethuramiah
,
A.
,
2002
, “
A Systematic Methodology to Characterize the Running-In and Steady-State Wear Processes
,”
Wear
,
252
(
5–6
), pp.
445
453
.
8.
Akbarzadeh
,
S.
, and
Khonsari
,
M. M.
,
2011
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Running-In
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
44
(
2
), pp.
92
100
.
9.
Wagner
,
J. J.
,
Jenson
,
A. D.
, and
Sundararajan
,
S.
,
2017
, “
The Effect of Contact Pressure and Surface Texture on Running-In Behavior of Case Carburized Steel Under Boundary Lubrication
,”
Wear
,
376–377
(
Pt. A
), pp.
851
857
.
10.
Hanief
,
M.
, and
Wani
,
M. F.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Surface Roughness on Wear Rate During Running-In of En31-Steel: Model and Experimental Validation
,”
Mater. Lett.
,
176
, pp.
91
93
.
11.
Lu
,
W. L.
,
Zhang
,
G. P.
,
Liu
,
X. J.
,
Zhou
,
L. P.
,
Chen
,
L. Z.
, and
Jiang
,
X. Q.
,
2014
, “
Prediction of Surface Topography at the End of Sliding Running-In Wear Based on Areal Surface Parameters
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
57
(
3
), pp.
553
560
.
12.
Blau
,
P. J.
,
1989
,
Friction and Wear Transitions of Materials
,
Noyes Publications
,
Park Ridge, NJ
.
13.
Fox-Rabinovich
,
G. S.
,
Gershman
,
I. S.
,
Yamamoto
,
K.
,
Biksa
,
A.
,
Veldhuis
,
S. C.
,
Beake
,
B. D.
, and
Kovalev
,
A. I.
,
2010
, “
Self-Organization During Friction in Complex Surface Engineered Tribosystems
,”
Entropy
,
12
(
12
), pp.
275
288
.
14.
Mortazavi
,
V.
,
Menezes
,
P. L.
, and
Nosonovsky
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Studies of Shannon Entropy Evolution Due to Self-Organization During the Running-In
,”
ASME
Paper No. IJTC2011-61231.
15.
Ding
,
C.
,
Zhu
,
H.
,
Sun
,
G.
,
Zhou
,
Y. K.
, and
Zuo
,
X.
,
2017
, “
Chaotic Characteristics and Attractor Evolution of Friction Noise During Friction Process
,”
Friction
,
6
(
1
), pp.
47
61
.
16.
Zhou
,
Y. K.
,
Zhu
,
H.
,
Zuo
,
X.
,
Li
,
Y.
, and
Chen
,
N. X.
,
2015
, “
The Nonlinear Nature of Friction Coefficient in Lubricated Sliding Friction
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
88
, pp.
8
16
.
17.
Zhou
,
Y. K.
,
Zhu
,
H.
,
Zuo
,
X.
, and
Yang
,
J. H.
,
2014
, “
Chaotic Characteristics of Measured Temperatures During Sliding Friction
,”
Wear
,
317
(
1–2
), pp.
17
25
.
18.
Zuo
,
X.
,
Zhu
,
H.
,
Zhou
,
Y. K.
, and
Ding
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Monofractal and Multifractal Behavior of Worn Surface in Brass-Steel Tribosystem Under Mixed Lubricated Condition
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
93
(
Pt. A
), pp.
306
317
.
19.
Zhu
,
H.
,
Zuo
,
X.
, and
Zhou
,
Y. K.
,
2016
, “
Recurrence Evolvement of Brass Surface Profile in Lubricated Wear Process
,”
Wear
,
352–353
, pp.
9
17
.
20.
Zhu
,
H.
,
Ge
,
S. R.
,
Lv
,
L.
, and
Lu
,
B. B.
,
2008
, “
Evolvement Rule of Running-in Attractor
,”
Chin. J. Mech. Eng.
,
44
(
03
), pp.
99
104
.
21.
Zhou
,
Y. K.
,
Zhu
,
H.
, and
Zuo
,
X.
,
2016
, “
The Behavior of Intrinsic Randomness and Dynamic Abrupt Changes of Friction Force Signal During the Friction Process
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
138
(
3
), p.
031605
.
22.
Galatolo
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Complexity, Initial Condition Sensitivity, Dimension and Weak Chaos in Dynamical Systems
,”
Nonlinearity
,
16
(
4
), pp.
12
19
.
23.
Grassberger
,
P.
, and
Procaccia
,
I.
,
1983
, “
Characterization of Strange Attractors
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
,
50
(
5
), pp.
346
349
.
24.
Manuca
,
R.
, and
Savit
,
R.
,
1996
, “
Stationarity and Nonstationarity in Time Series Analysis
,”
Physica D
,
99
(
2–3
), pp.
134
161
.
25.
Nosonovsky
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Entropy in Tribology: In the Search for Applications
,”
Entropy
,
12
(
12
), pp.
1345
1390
.
26.
Blau
,
P. J.
,
2005
, “
On the Nature of Running-In
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
38
(
11–12
), pp.
1007
1012
.
27.
Zhou
,
Y. K.
,
Zhu
,
H.
, and
Zuo
,
X.
,
2016
, “
Dynamic Evolutionary Consistency Between Friction Force and Friction Temperature From the Perspective of Morphology and Structure of Phase Trajectory
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
94
, pp.
606
615
.
28.
Grassberger
,
P.
, and
Procaccia
,
I.
,
1983
, “
Estimation of the Kolmogorov Entropy From a Chaotic Signal
,”
Phys. Rev. A
,
28
(
4
), pp.
2591
2593
.
You do not currently have access to this content.